ࡱ> XXXXXXp q` EbjbjqPqP ::+3    bbb4hLd|h d &  K M M M M M M $ hd q b  @ q   R    R nbK  K   6) xR*b,  ַD\ "]* > vh 0 * ` ~ t 8,  b, | q q " hhhLdhhhLT       Chng I: i cng v h thng thng tin qun l 1. Gii thiu s lc mt s phng php phn tch thit k 1.1. Phng php SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Fechnique) - Phng php ny xut pht t M, tng c bn ca n l: phn r mt h thng ln thnh cc phn h nh v n gin. - SADT c xy dung da trn 7 nguyn l sau y: + S dng mt m hnh + Phn tch i xung + Dng mt m hnh chc nng v mt m hnh quan nim ( cn c gi l M hnh thit kՔ) + Th hin tnh i ngu ca h thng. + S dng cc biu din di dng ho. + Phi hp hot ng ca nhm. + u tin tuyt i cho h s vit. - SADT c nh ngha l phng php s dng cc k thut: + Dng d liu hay cn gi l lu d liu (Dt flow diagrams) + T in d liu (Data Dictionary) + Anh ng c cu trc. + Cy quyt nh. Phng php SADT c nhiu u im nh da vo nguyn l phn tch cu trc, thit k theo li phn cp, dung trn cc lu chc nng, to c cc lin h Mt cha nhiu con One parent to many children relationship, m bo t mt d liu vo sn xut nhiu d liu ra. Nhng nhc im ca n l khng bao gm ton b tin trnh phn tch v nu khng then trng s dng SADT c th a tin trnh trng lp thng tin. 1.2. Phng php MERISE (Methode pour Rassembler les Ides Sans Effort) - Phng php MERISE l phng php phn tch c ngun gc t Php, ra i t nhng nm cui thp nin 70. N l kt qu nghin cu ca nhiu tp th nghin cu tin hc nhm p ng cc ch i ca ngi s dng, thc c v s lc hu ca cc phng php phn tch c in th h th nht. - tng c bn ca phng php MERISE l xut pht t ba mt c bn sau: * Mt th nht: Quan tm n chu k sng ca h thng thng tin, tri qua nhiu giai on: Thai nghn (Gesstation) Quan nim/ nim Qun tr Cht. Chu k sng ny i vi quan nim t chc ln c th ko di t 10 15 nm. * Mt th hai: cp ti chu k c t ca h thng thng tin cn c gi l chu k tru tng. H thng thng tin c tp trung li nh mt ton th c miu t bi nhiu tng (Couche): B nh ca h thng thng tin c m t trn bnh din quan nim, k trn bnh din logic v cui cng trn bnh din vt l. Quy trnh x l c m t trn bnh din quan nim, k tip l trn bnh din t chc v cui cng l trn bnh din tc nghip. Mi tng c moo t di dng m hnh tp trung tp hp cc thng s chnh xc. Theo kho nhng thng s ca tng di tng trng, tng ang m t khng bin i v n ch thay i khi cc tham s ca mnh thay i. Mi m hnh c m t thng qua mt hnh thc da trn cc nguyn tc, nguyn l ng vng v c c php xc nh. C nhng quy tc chuyn cho php chuyn t mt m hnh ny sang m hnh khc mt cch t ng nhiu hay t. * Mt th ba: Mt ny c lin quan n chu k ca cc quyt nh (Cycle des Decisions) cn phi ra trong sut chu k sng ca sn phm. Nhng quyt nh c lin quan n ni dung ca nhng m hnh khc nhau ca chu k tru tng, n cc hnh thi ca quan nim v lin quan n s pht trin ca h thng. c trng c bn ca phng php MERISE l: + Nhn ton cc + Tch ri cc d liu v x l + Tip vn theo mc C th tm tt ni dung th hai v th ba th hin qua vic nhn thc v xy dng cc loi m hnh trong qu trnh phn tch v thit k bng bng sau: McD liuX lQuan nimM hnh quan nim d liuM hnh quan nim x lT chcM hnh Logic d liuM hnh t chc x lK thutM hnh vt l d liuM hnh tc v x l u im ca phng php MERISE l c c s khoa hc vng chc. Hin ti n l mt trong nhng phng php phn tch c dng nhiu Php v cc nc Chu u khi phi phn tch v thit k h thng ln. Nhc im ca phng php ny l cng knh, do gii quyt cc p dng nh vic s dng phng php ny nhiu lc a n vic ko di thi gian nng n khng ng c. 1.3. Phng php MCX (Methode de Xavier castellani) Phng php phn tch MCX c ngun gc t Php, do gio s ca vin tin hc x nghip IIE Institut Informatique d Entreris sng to. Phng php ny kh thng dng v tho cc iu kin ca cc phng php phn tch th h th hai. C th nu mt s nt c bn v phng php phn tch MCX nh sau: + Cho php xy dng c m hnh tng qut, chnh xc, biu din h thng thng tin hoc cc phn h thng tin. + Cho php phn tch, nm c d liu, qu trnh x l v truyn thng cc h thng thng tin. + Cho php biu din cc x l vi cc lu v cc chng trnh, son tho bi mt ngn ng gii thut dng cc mc khc nhau. + Cho php lng ho cc x l. Phng php MCX ngh cc giai on c bn ca qu trnh phn tch: + Phn tch Macro + Phn tch s b + Phn tch quan nim + Phn tch chc nng + Phn tch cu trc Phng php phn tch ny kh hu hiu thch hp vi vic thc hnh. Nhc im l rm r. 1.4. Phng php GALACSI (Groupe d Animation et de Liaison pour I Analyse et la Conception de systeme d Information ) Phng php GALACSI c ngun gvs ti Php, do mt nhm cc gio s ca cc hc vin cng ngh IUT (Institut Universiture de Technologic) v MIAGE ( Maitrise de Methodes Informatiques Applyques la Gestion) Cao hc v phng php tin hc p dng v qun l. Phng php GALACSI chnh thc ra i vo thng 04 nm 1982. Ni dung c bn ca phng php trnh by mt tp hp cc cng c v nguyn liu tin hnh cc giai on c bn sau y ca qu trnh phn tch. 1. Nghin cu cc h thng t chc v h thng thng tin tng ng: * Nghin cu hin trng * Nghin cu kh thi 2. Phn tch chc nng * M hnh d liu * M hnh x l 3. Phn tch cu trc * T chc d liu: mc logic v vt l * T chc x l: x l theo l, x l theo thi gian thc (i thoi ngi vi my) * Mi trng tip nhn: my vi tnh, mng my tnh, ngn ng, cc phn mm chuyn dng. * Giao din ngi my: cng thi hc, ngn ng giao tip. 4. Lp trnh Gii thut, ngn ng lp trnh, kin trc cc mi trng c th. Do phn ln cc tc gi l cc gio s nn phng php c dng ging dy trong nhiu hc vin (IUT). Nhc im ca phng php l cha th nghim nhiu trong thc t. 2. Cc h thng kinh doanh * H thng: l mt tp hp c t chc ca nhiu phn t c nhng mi rng buc ln nhau v cng hot ng chung cho mt mc ch no . * Mt s nhn xt v h thng ni chung: + Phn t bao gm cc phng tin vt cht v nhn lc, mi phn t u c thuc tnh (c trng). + Gia cc phn t lun c mi quan h, cc mi quan h quyt nh s tn ti v pht trin ca h thng, mi khi thm bt phn t s lm bin i cc mi quan h. + H thng lun c mc tiu, tng th phi hng v mt mc ch chung cho tt c cc phn t. + H thng c tnh kim sot (cn bng v t iu chnh), iu m bo tnh thng nht v theo ui mc tiu ca mnh. + H thng c gii hn xc nh nhng phn t trong v ngoi h, tnh gii hn mang tnh cht m. + H thng nm trong mt mi trng, trong c mt s phn t ca h tng tc vi mi trng bn ngoi. * Mi lin h gia h thng v mi trng Th d: Xt mt h thng x nghip v cc mi lin h ca n vi mi trng. Mi trng ny gm nhng nh cung cp (NCC), nh thu (NT), nhng c quan nh nc (CQNN), nhng c quan ti chnh (CQTC) trung gian, cc i l (L), cc khch hng trc tip. M hnh s lc mi lin h gia x nghip v mi trng c n th hin nh sau:  H thng kinh doanh l mt h thng c mc ch phc v cho kinh doanh: + Li nhun: v d nh cng ty + Li ch: v d nh bnh vin c im ca h thng kinh doanh l c s tham gia ca con ngi nn mang theo nhiu c im, u im, khuyt im ca con ngi. Mt h thng kinh doanh c th phn lm 3 h thng con: + H thng quyt nh: con ngi, phng tin, phng php tham gia xut quyt nh. + H thng thng tin: con ngi, phng tin, phng php tham gia x l thng tin kinh doanh (h qun tr). + H tc nghip: con ngi, phng tin, phng php tham gia trc tip thc hin mc tiu kinh doanh (sn xut trc tip). Mt cch tng qut cc hot ng nhm thc hin c tnh cnh tranh t c mc tiu xc nh ca h quyt nh. S th hin mi quan h gia 3 h thng con  3. Nhim v v vai tr ca h thng thng tin Nhn vo s ta they y l s chia cch c tnh cht phng php lun ch khng phi l s chia ct vt l.  Input Output Feed back Thng tin kinh doanh c 2 loi sau y: + T nhin: l loi thng tin gi nguyn dng khi n pht sinh (ting ni, cng vn, hnh nh ) x l n thuc v cng tc vn phng (k thut mang c im khc nhau). + Thng tin c cu trc: thng tin c cu trc ho (s sch ) 3.1. Nhim v ca h thng thng tin + i ngoi: thu nhn thng tin t mi trng ngoi, a thng bo ra ngoi. V d nh thng tin v gi c th trng, + i ni: lin lc gia cc b phn cung cp cho h tc nghip, h quyt nh thng tin 2 loi sau: Phn nh tnh trng ni b c quan. Tnh trng hot ng kinh doanh. 3.2. Vai tr ca h thng thng tin H thng thng tin ng vai tr trung gian gia h thng v mi trng, gia h thng con quyt nh v h thng con nghip v.  Thng tin vo Thng tin ra H 3.3. Cc h thng tin thng dng Trong mt n v c th s dng cc h thng tin l: H x l d liu, h thng tin qun l, h tr gip quyt nh v h chuyn gia. a. H x l d liu (Data Processing System - DPS) + Chc nng ch yu ca h l x l cc giao dch v ghi li cc bn ghi cho tng chc nng c th. + Cc d liu c a vo, thng xuyn cp nht. u ra nh k bao gm cc ti liu hot ng v bo co theo lch. + V bn cht DPS vic x l d liu khng linh hot c tnh cc b, ch yu dnh cho cc nh qun l cp tc nghip. b. H thng tin qun l (MIS) + MIS l mt cu trc hp nht cc c s d liu v dng thng tin lm ti u cho vic thu thp, truyn v trnh by thng tin thng qua T chc nhiu cp c cc nhm thc hin nhiu nhim v hon thnh mc tiu thng nht. + c trng ca MIS: - H tr cho chc nng x l d liu trong giao dch v lu tr. - Dng c s d liu hp nht v hc tr cho nhiu lnh vc chc nng. - Cung cp cho cc nh qun l chin lc, sch lc v tc nghip kh nng thm nhp cc thng tin theo thi gian ( phn ln thng tin l c cu trc). - Linh hot c th thch ng vi nhng thay i v nhu cu thng tin ca t chc. - C c ch bo mt thng tin theo tng cp c them quyn s dng. c. H tr gip quyt nh (Design Support System - DSS) + C mt s quyt nh mc chin lc v sch lc, cc thng tin cn thu thp v tng hp rt phc tp m MIS khng th p ng y . Khi cc quyt nh ny cn n h tr gip quyt nh. + DSS s s dng nhng Hardware v Software tin tin nht ph hp vi yu cu tr gip, cc m hnh lp k hoch v d ton, SQL v c th c tr tu nhn to. + Kh nng ca DSS c th l: - Chn la gip mt phng n - Cung cp, sp xp cc phng n theo tiu chun ca con ngi lm quyt nh. - Cung cp v phn tch d liu, cc th mt cch t ng. + c trng ca DSS: - Gip cc nh lm quyt nh trong qu trnh ra quyt nh. - Thit k cho cc vn na cu trc v khng cu trc. - Ch yu h tr cho cc nh qun l mc chin lc v sch lc. - To cc m hnh a chc nng, c kh nng m phng v c cc cng c phn tch. - Sn sng thch ng vi yu cu thng tin ca mi mi trng quyt nh, linh hot vi nhiu kiu qun l. - To thun li cho lin lc gia cc mc lm quyt nh ( nh cung cp thng tin c tng hp mc tc nghip cho cc nh qun l cp cao hn xem). - DSS c to nn t tp cc cng c tr gip (Hardware v Software) nh th hin m hnh di y:  Cng c phn mm DSS d. H chuyn gia (ES) + L mt h mi thnh lp, n lin quan mt thit vi lnh vc tr tu nhn to. + Tr tu nhn to l lnh vc nghin cu lm cho my tnh cs kh nng lp lun, hc tp, t hon thin nh loi ngi. + H chuyn gia gip nh qun l gii quyt vn v thc hin quyt nh mc cao hn h DSS. l h thng tng tc da trn my tnh tr li cc cu hi, hi thm cc cu hi suy lun v lm sng t vn . Theo cch h nh mt chuyn gia lm vic vi nh qun l. + H dng tr thc do con ngi cung cp m hnh ho qu trnh t duy bn trong ca mt lnh vc c th. + Trong nhng nm gn y h c pht trin h tr cho cc lnh vc nh chun on Y hc, lp k hoch ti chnh, d bo thi tit, + Li ch ca h chuyn gia: - Gip cho tri thc con ngi c th thu thp di dng h chuyn gia. - H c th m rng kh nng lm quyt nh ca nhiu ngi. - H c th cung cp s n nh v tnh nht qun cho mt lnh vc quyt nh c th. - H lm gim s ph thuc vo con ngi. - L mt cng c hun luyn tuyt vi thng qua cc chng trnh m phng tnh hung. 4. Cc thnh phn hp thnh ca h thng thng tin. 4.1. c im ca h thng thng tin qun l HTTT l mt h thng c t chc thng nht t trn xungdi c chc nng tng hp cc thng tin gip cc nh qun l qun l tt c s ca mnh v tr gip ra quyt nh hot ng kinh doanh. Mt h thng qun l c phn thnh nhiu cp t trn xung di v chuyn t di ln trn. 4.2. Cc thnh phn c bn ca h thng thng tin Nu khng k con ngi v phng tin th cn li 2 b phn: D liu v x l. a. Cc d liu Cc thng tin c cu trc , vi mi cp qun l lng thng tin x l c th rt ln, a dng v bin ng c v chng loi, v cch thc x l. Thng tin c cu trc bao gm lung thng tin vo v lung thng tin ra. * Lung thng tin vo: C th phn loi cc thng tin cn x l thnh ba loi sau: + Thng tin cn cho tra cu: cc thng tin dng cho tra cu l thng tin dng chung cho h thng v t b thay i. Cc thng tin ny thng c cp nht mt ln v ch dng cho tra cu trong vic x l thng tin sau ny. + Thng tin lun chuyn chi tit: cc thng tin lun chuyn chi tit l loi thng tin chi tit v hot ng ca n v, khi lng, khi lng thng tin thng rt ln, cn phi x l kp thi. + Thng tin lun chuyn tng hp: cc thng tin lun chuyn tng hp l loi thng tin c tng hp t hot ng ca cc cp thp hn, thng tin ny thng c ng, x l theo k theo l. * Lung thng tin ra: + Thng tin u ra c tng hp t cc thng tin u vo v ph thuc vo nhu cu qun l trong tng trng hp c th, tng n v c th. Thng tin ra l vic tra cu nhanh v mt i tng cn quan tm ng thi phi m bo chnh xc kp thi. + Cc thng tin u ra quan trng nht c tng hp trong qu trnh x l l cc bo co tng hp, thng k, thng bo. Cc mu biu bo co thng k phi phn nh c th trc tip, st vi mt n v. + Ngoi nhng yu cu c cp nht thng tin kp thi cho h thng, lung thng tin ra phi c thit k linh hot mm do. y l chc nng th hin tnh m, tnh giao din ca h thng thng tin u ra gn vi chu k thi gian tu theo yu cu ca bi ton c th, t ta c th lc bt c thng tin tha trong qu trnh x l. b. Cc x l Cc quy trnh, phng php, chc nng x l thng tin c lu gi lu di nhng lun tin trin do hai ngun gc. + T nhin tin ho: thng tin ny lm thay i tnh trng v ni b + T nhin hot ng: thng tin lm thay i tnh trng hot ng kinh doanh ca doanh nghip. 5. Cc h thng t ng ho H thng t ng ho l h thng c s tham gia ca my tnh x l thng tin, c nhiu mc x l khc nhau. * Mc t ng ho: + Ton cc: con ngi ch l vai tr ph. + Mt phn: chia cng vic x l gia con ngi v my tnh. Ton b mt c quan gi l h thng nht nht th. Vic t ng ho mt h thng kinh doanh c th lm vi hai cch: + S dng my tnh tp trung bao trim (Phng php h) + p dng tng b phn: ring r tng phm vi (Phng php ging) * Phng thc x l thng tin bng my tnh + X l m (batch Processing): thng tin n i theo m ( tnh lng) + X l trc tuyn (online processing): thng tin n x l ngay (bn v my bay). Phng thc ny thngdng cho cc trng hp sau: - In cc bo co, kt xut, thng k. - In cc giy t giao dch c s lng ln. X l c tnh cht nh k thng dng khi: - Vo v x l mt s lng nh cc giao dch - Hin th, chnh n, sa cha cc tp - Phc v trc tip khch hng ti ch. Ngy nay, ngi ta c xu hng dng x l trc tuyn nhiu do my c gi thnh thp, nhng iu khng hn l hay. * u im trc tuyn: + Gim c cng vic giy t, cc khu trung gian + Kim tra c s ng n ca d liu ngay khi thu nhp. + Ngi dng hiu r c quy trnh x l (ngi dng tham gia vi vai tr tch cc) + Cho tr li nhanh chng. * Nhc im: + t hn (c v phn cng ln phn mm). + Xy dng tn cng, tn thi gian hn + S dng CPU khng kinh t (phi thng trc ngay c khi khng lm g) + X l chm khi khi lng ln. + Kh m bo tnh tin cy (Reliabiliti). + Kh phc hi d liu ( v d liu trn dng) + i hi nhiu bin php c bit d liu 6. Cc giai on phn tch, thit k v ci t Cc cng vic cn hon thnh: + Xc nh vn v yu cu + Xc nh mc tiu, u tin + Thit k logic ( tr li cu hi lm g? hoc l g? What?) + Thit k vt l ( a nhng bin php, phng tin, How?) + Ci t ( lp trnh) + Khai thc v bo tr. Vic phn giai on tu tng phng php v ch c tnh tng i. 6.1. Giai on 1 + Kho st hin trng v xc lp d n. + Tm hiu, ph phn hin trng a ra gii php. 6.2. Giai on 2 + Phn tch h thng. Phn tch su hn cc chc nng, cc d liu ca hot ng c a ra m t hot ng mi (giai on thit k logic) 6.3. Giai on 3 + Thit k tng th (xc lp vai tr ca mi trng mt cch tng th trong h thng). Thit k tng th: Biu lung d liu E-R( ch : mc khung cnh, mc nh, mc di nh). 6.4. Giai on 4 Thit k chi tit: + Th cng + Kim sot phc hi + Thit k c s d liu ( ch : thit k bng, chun ho, kho, relations) + Chng trnh 6.5. Giai on 5 + Ci t, lp trnh. 6.6. Giai on 6 + Khai thc v bo tr. Theo mt thng k tnh v chi ph cho cc giai on ny c th hin bng s sau (Zelkowitz 1978, trang 202)  EMBED MSGraph.Chart.8 \s  Cc giai on ca phn tch v thit k h thng thng tin  Bi tp chng I: 1.1 Ti sao khi xy dng cc phn mm cn phi phn tch v thit k h thng? 1.2 Nu vai tr h thng thng tin trong h thng kinh doanh. 1.3 Cc giai on ca qu trnh phn tch v thit k h thng. 1.4 Nhng lnh vc ng dng no ph hp vi phng thc x l thng tin theo l (batch) v lnh vc no ph hp vi x l theo trc tuyn (online). 1.5 Phn bit h thng tin qun l MIS vi h tr gip quyt nh DSS v h chuyn gia ES. 1.6 Hy tho lun s phn b cc s c sai st ca vng i h thng  Chng II: Cc cng c din t x l 1. i cng Phn tch thit k ni chung l nhn thc v m t mt h thng; bi vy ngi ta thng dng cc m hnh, cc biu tru tng ho v gip con ngi trao i ln nhau. Mi m hnh l mt khun dng nhn thc (c thc ch quan). Mc tiu ca phn tch m hnh x l l a ra mt cch xc nh cc yu cu ca ngi dng trong qu trnh pht trin h thng; nhng yu cu ny c bm st t mt lot cc s kin m ngi phn tch thu c qua cc php o th nghim. C mt s cng c chnh din t chc nng ca h thng: + Biu phn cp chc nng (BPC) + Biu lung d liu (BLD) + Cc k hiu m rng ca hng IBM + S thut ton (Algorithms) + Ngn ng gi trnh (Pseudo Code) + c t cc quy tc qun l + T in nh ngha cc chc nng x l. 2. Biu phn cp chc nng (BPC) L cng c khi u m t h thng qua chc nng do cng ty IBM pht trin. V vy cho n nay n vn cn c s dng, n cho php phn r dn dn cc chc nng t chc nng mc cao thnh chc nng chi tit nh hn; v kt qu cui cng ta thu c mt cy chc nng. Cy chc nng ny xc nh mt cch r rng d hiu ci g xy ra trong h thng. * Thnh phn ca biu bao gm: + Cc chc nng: c k hiu bng hnh ch nht trn c gn tn nhn.  + Kt ni: kt ni gia cc chc nng c tnh cht phn cp c k hiu bng on thng. Th d: Chc nng A c phn r thnh cc chc nng B, C, D  * c im ca BPC: + Cc chc nng c nhn mt cch khi qut nht, trc quan d hiu, th hin tnh cu trc ca phn r chc nng (Function Decomposed). + D thnh lp v tnh n gin: V n trnh by h thng phi lmf g hn l h thng lm nh th no? + Mang tnh cht tnh v b qua mi lin quan thng tin gia cc chc nng. Cc chc nng khng b lp li v khng d tha. + Rt gn gi vi s t chc nhng ta khng ng nht n vi s t chc: Phn ln cc t chc ca doanh nghip ni chung thng gn lion vi chc nng. Th d: Biu phn cp chc nng ca h thng cung ng vt t.  3. Biu lung d liu (BLD) 3.1. Mc ch Biu lung d liu (BLD) din t tp hp cc chc nng ca h thng trong cc mi quan h trc sau trong tin trnh x l, trong bn giao thng tin cho nhau. Mc ch ca BLD l gip chng ta they c ng sau nhng ci g thc t xy ra trong h thng (ci bn cht), lm r nhng chc nng v thng tin no cn thit cho qun l. Biu ny da vo phng php pht trin h thng c cu trc bao gm 3 k thut phn tch chnh: + S dng d liu ( Data Flow Diagram) m t quan h gia qu trnh x l v cc dng d liu. + T in nh ngha d liu (Data Dictionary Definitions) m t cc phn t dng d liu. + Xc nh qu trnh x l (Proccessing Specifications) m t qu trnh x l mt cch chi tit. Mi quan h gia 3 thnh phn l bc tranh sinh ng ca h thng c th hi qua s sau:  3.2. Tc dng * BLD l mt cng c chnh ca qu trnh phn tch, nhm mc ch thit k trao i v to lp d liu. N th hin r rng v kh y cc nt c trng ca h thng trong cc bc phn tch, thit k, trao i d liu. * Cc mc din t: + Mc vt l: m t h thng lm nh th no? (How to do ?) + Mc khi nim (logic): m t h thng lm g? (What to do?); y khng ni n bin php, cng c, * Hnh thc biu din: trong mt s ti liu khc nhau vi cc phng php tip cn khc nhau (MEIN, SSADM) ngi ta thng dng cc k hiu khng hon ton ging nhau. Tuy vy cc thnh phn c bn khng thay i v n c s dng nht qun trong cc qu trnh phn tch, thit k. 3.3. Cc thnh phn c bn ca BLD Gm 5 thnh phn + Chc nng x l (Process) + Lung d liu (Data Flows) + Kho d liu (Data Store) + Tc nhn ngoi (External Entily) + Tc nhn trong a. Chc nng x l + nh ngha: Chc nng x l l chc nng biu t cc thao tc, nhim v hay tin trnh x l no . Tnh cht quan trng ca n l bin i thng tin. Tc l n phi lm thay i thng tin t u vo theo mt cch no nh t chc li thng tin, b sung thng tin hoc to ra thng tin mi. + Tn i km: Bi v chc nng l thao tc nn phi c dng l mt "ng t" cng vi "B ng". Ch rng trong ting vit ng t v danh t i khi chung mt t nn cn tht ta pho thm t xc nh "s" nu mun nhn mnh l danh t. + Biu din: chc nng c biu din bi mt hnh trn hay hnh van, bn trong c tn ca chc nng . Vic dng k hiu hnh trn ch l quy c, c k tha t cc phng php lun da trn tin trnh trc y. Nhiu phng php lun chp nhn nhng k hiu khc cho mc ch ny, chng hn nh hnh ch nht hay hnh vung trn cc gc tin li cho son tho vn bn. Bi vy khi tham kho cc ti liu khc ta nn ch ; cn trong ti liu ny ta s dng nht qun k hiu hnh trn.  + V d b. Lung d liu(Data flow) + nh ngha: l mt lung thng tin vo hay ra ca mt chc nng x l. Bi vy lung d liu c coi nh cc giao din gia cc thnh phn ca biu . + Biu din: Mt lung d liu c v trong BLD di dng mt mi tn, trn c vit tn ca lung d liu. Mi tn ch hng ca lung thng tin.  + Tn i km: Tn lung d liu phi l mt "Danh t", km thm "Tnh t" nu cn, cho php hiu vn tt ni dung ca d liu c chuyn giao  V d: Trong trng hp d liu c chuyn giao l mt d liu c cu trc, th khi cn ta c th v lung d liu r nhnh (thnh cc lung thnh phn), hoc chp li (t cc lung thnh phn). V d: Trong vin thng ngi ta dng khi nim "thng bo" vi nh ngha sau: Thng bo = Phong bao thng bo + Vn bn thng bo Phong bao thng bo = nh danh ngi gi + nh danh ngi nhn Vy c th v khi cn cc lung d liu sau:   c. Cc kho d liu (Data stores) + nh ngha: kho thng tin l cc thng tin cn lu gi li trong mt khong thi gian sau mt hay mt vi chc nng x l hoc tc nhn trong s dng. N bao gm mt ngha rt rng cc dng d liu lu tr: Di dng vt l chng c th l cc ti liu lu tr trong vn phng hoc cc file trn cc thit b mang tin ( bng t, a t) ca my tnh; nhng y ta quan tm n thng tin cha trong tc l dng logic ca n (trong c s d liu).  + Biu din: kho d liu c biu din bng hai on thng nm ngang (hnh ch nht h hai u, cp on thng song song), kp gia tn ca kho d liu. + Tn i km: tn kho d liu phi l mt "Danh t", km theo "tnh t" nu cn thit, cho php hiu vn tt ni dung ca d liu c lu tr ch khng phi gi mang thng tin.  V d: Vic s dng cc kho d liu trong BLD tun th mt s quy tc din t v hiu ngha th hin nh cc hnh di y:      d. Tc nhn ngoi / i tc (External Entily) + nh ngha: tc nhn ngoi l mt ngi, nhm hay t chc bn ngoi lnh vc nghin cu ca h thng; nhng c bit c mt s hnh thc tip xc, trao i thng tin vi h thng. S c mt ca cc nhn t ny trn s ch ra gii hn ca h thng v nh r mi quan h ca h thng vi h gii bn ngoi. iu ng ch l hiu ngha "ngoi lnh vc nghin cu" khng c ngha l bn ngoi t chc. Chng hn nh i vi h thng x l n hng th b phn k ton, b phn mua hng v cc b phn kho tng vn l tc nhn ngoi. i vi h thng tuyn sinh i hc th tc nhn ngoi vn c th l th sinh, gio vin chm thi v hi ng tuyn sinh. Tc nhn ngoi l phn sng cn ca h thng, chng l ngun cung cp thng tin cho h thng cng nh chng nhn cc sn phm thng tin t h thng. + Biu din: bng hnh ch nht bn trong c ghi tn tc nhn ngoi   + Tn i km: tn i tc phi l mt danh t, km theo tnh t nu cn thit cho php hiu vn tt tc nhn ngoi l ai, hoc l g (ngi, t chc, thit b, tp, ) V d: e. Tc nhn trong + nh ngha: tc nhn trong l mt chc nng hay mt h thng con ca h thng c m t trang khc ca biu nhng c trao i thng tin vi cc phn t thuc trang hin ti ca biu . Thng thng mi biu u c th bao gm mt s trang nht l trong cc h thng phc tp v vi khun kh giy c hn thng tin c truyn gia cc qu trnh trn cc trang khc nhau c ch ra nh k hiu ny. K hiu tng t nh nt tip ni ca s thut ton. Nh vy tc nhn trong xut hin trong biu ch lm nhim v tham chiu. + Biu din: Tc nhn trong biu din bng hnh ch nht thiu cnh trn, hoc hnh ch nht thiu cnh bn phi cn cnh bn tri c 2 cnh song song  + Tn i km: tn tc nhn trong phi l mt "ng t" km theo "B ng" khi cn. V d:  Trn y l nm yu t biu din c php s dng trong mt BLD, ta c th tng hp n li theo bng di y: Chc nngLung d liuKho d liuTc nhn ngoiTc nhn trongnh nghaNhim v x l thng tinThng tin vo / ra mt chc nng x lNi lu tr thng tin trong mt thi gianNgi hay t chc ngoi h thng c giao tip vi h thngMt chc nng hay mt h con ca h thng nhng c m t trang khcTn i kmng t (+ B ng)Danh t (+ Tnh t)Danh t (+ Tnh t)Danh tng t (+ B ng)Biu din  V d   Vi s hn ch kh ngt ngho th cc BLD t c kh nng tip nhn cc yu t vt l, v gi c s din t mc logic. Tuy nhin, sau ny ta s thy nu ngi phn tch s th vn c kh nng lt li cc yu t vt l xm nhp vo BLD. V vy m vn cn phi c mt nhim v cn lm trong qu trnh phn tch h thng l gt b cc yu t vt l ra khi BLD.  V d: BLD din t mt quy trnh bn hng theo n t hng 3.4. Mt s ch khi xy dng BLD  * Trong biu khng c hai tc nhn ngoi trao i trc tip vi nhau  * Khng c trao i trc tip gia hai kho d liu m khng thng qua chc nng x l. * Ni chung kho c tn nn lung thng tin vo ra kho khng cn tn, ch khi vic cp nht, hoc trch t kho ch mt phn thng tin kho, ngi ta dng tn cho lung thng tin. * V l do trnh by nn tc nhn ngoi, tc nhn trong v kho d liu s dng nhiu ln ( c v li nhiu ni) trong cng biu cho d c, d hiu hn. * Mi lin quan gia chc nng x l, kho d liu v lung d liu  * i vi kho d liu phi c t nht mt lung d liu vo v t nht mt lung ra. Nu kho ch c lung vo m khng c lung ra l kho " v tch s", nu kho ch c lung ra m khng c lung vo l kho "rng". 3.5. Phn mc trong BLD a) Khi nm: Phn mc l s phn cp t mc tng qut n mc chi tit nu ln cc chc nng ca h thng. Tu theo quy m ca h thng m s phn cp ny chi tit n mc no. Tuy nhin, a s h thng thng c chia thnh 3 mc :  b) Phn mc v nhiu biu lung d liu * BLD mc khung cnh (mc 0): mc ny ch c mt biu gm chc nng chnh ca h thng v biu din h thng tin c giao tip vi cc tc nhn ngoi no. BLD mc khung cnh thng c dng nh sau:  * BLD mc nh (mc 1): BLD mc nh dng biu din chc nng tng qut A mt cch chi tit hn, bng cch phn nh chc nng A thnh cc chc nng chi tit hn v cng ch c mt biu . BLD mc nh thng c dng nh sau:  * BLD mc di nh (mc 2): tt c nhng chi tit thng tin ca h thng thng th hin r biu mc di nh. BLD ny gm nhiu biu chi tit, mi biu th hin mt chc nng chi tit thng y tt c cc i tng ca h thng BLD. V d mt BLD mc di nh th hin chi tit ca chc nng 1 trn.   * Lu : Ta cn lu cc nguyn tc sau khi thit k phn mc cho BLD - Ch c tc nhn trong mi c th tc ng n kho d liu. - Tc nhn ngoi phi xut hin y mc khung cnh, khng c xut hin thm tc nhn ngoi cc mc di. - Kho d liu khng c xut hin mc khung cnh, t mc nh n mc di nh cc kho d liu xut hin dn. 4. Cc th hin khc ca biu lung d liu - Biu din thng tin. Trn y ta nghin cu 2 phng php: + Biu phn cp chc nng + Biu lung d liu Cc phng php ny i khi cha sng t vi thc t v thc cht m hnh cn gin lc. Bi vy cn thit phi a ra mt s khi nim tru tng ho, ly c bn cht ca vn . a. S ng b ho + B sung mt s k hiu bn cnh lung d liu (() K hiu: ( v (AND) ( hoc loi tr (XOR) ( hoc khng loi tr (OR) V d: Xt phn h bn hng  ( ( b. Phng php ca MERISE: cho rng nh trn khng . c. Phn b cc chc nng theo a ch v thi gian d. a thm cc k hiu vt l vo biu . lm r cc chc nng v phn bit cc gi thng tin i vi cc ngun d liu v kho d liu ta a thm cc k hiu v cc quy c dng trong gio trnh. y l cc quy nh ca hng IBM tuy tng i c nhng ngy nay vn dng khi mun chi tit thm cc biu .  5. c t cc chc nng Biu lung d liu BLD, cc chc nng d c chi tit n u ( ti mc khng phn nh c na) cng ch xc nh nh tn ca n. Qu trnh phn tch t trn xung di, vi mc ch phn r dn tng bc s ngng mt mc no v c phn tch su thm s vt qua cu hi " H thng l g" ln sang giai on thit k tr li cu hi "H thng nh th no" hoc l chc nng thu c c n gin ti mc c th m t vi li l r. Bi vy cn thit cc chc nng c th c m t mt cch chi tit (mc m t thp nht) hn bng mt s phng php khc gi l c t chc nng (Process Specification) Mt c t gm hai phn (thng khng qu mt trang A4): Phn u : - Tn chc nng - Cc d liu vo - Cc d liu ra Phn thn: m t ni dung x l, c th s dng cc phng tin sau: Cc biu , lc , s khi Cc phng trnh ton hc Cc bng, cy quyt nh Mt ngn ng t nhin cu trc trc ho - ngn ng c t, ngn ng gi trnh (khng nn dng ngn ng t do) + Dng s khi (Flow Chart, Diagram): cc khi bt u, kt thc, thao tc, r nhnh, vng lp. + Ngn ng c cu trc (Pseudo Code): ngn ng gi, din t bng li thng qua mt ngn ng no din t cc bc vi cc hnh ng c s (Primitive Actions), cu trc tun t (Sequences), chn (Selections), lp. Th d: READ-FILESTOCK-DETALLS IF < iu kin> ELSE CASE WHEN WHEN DO WHILE REPAT UNTIL + Nhng quy nh v quy tc v qun l: cc cng thc tnh ton, cc php bin i. V d: - Quy nh tnh li sut tn dng v tin gi, - Quy nh cch tnh lng, - Quy nh nh thu thu nhp cao, - Quy nh tnh im trung bnh chung hc tp. + S dng bng quyt nh: bng biu din cc iu kin, cc hnh ng v di iu kin no th hnh ng s c tin hnh. Bng thng phn thnh cc trng hp mt cch rnh r v khng b st cc trng hp, bng quyt nh gm 4 gc 1/4 c dng nh sau: Cc iu kin c th xy raCc quy tc p dngcc hnh ng c th cCc hnh ng xy ra Bi ton: 03 ngi t i lm kh sai (A, B, C), ng cai t t iu kin: C 5 ci m gm 2 trng (T) (), mi ngi ch xem c 2 m trn u ngi kia. Nu on ng mu th khi i lm, nu on sai n n, nu khng on th i lm. A: thua, xin khng on B: thua, xin khng on C: (m) on c ( ) Trng hpNgiHnh ngABC1TTTKhng c ba m trng2TT3TTB loi4T5TTA loi6T7TB loi86. Bi tp 2 6.1. Bi tp 1 Mt v d tng qut xuyn sut cc chng v sau: H thng cung ng vt t cho mt nh my X. H thng gm hai b phn tch ri: + Mua hng + Tip nhn hng, pht hng Hai b phn ny lp ring 2 h thng x l ring trn my tnh, 2 my tnh ny khng tng thch nn khng kt ni c vi nhau. Cu trc tng ng ca hai b phn l: a) H t hng (H): nhm gii quyt cc d tr vt t ca cc phn xng. - Chn ngi cung cp. - Thng lng - Lp n hng (SH - n) Tp s dng: "Ngi cung cp" cha thng tin v ngi cung cp vi cc thng tin cn qun l M ngi cung cp (Ti khon), a ch, in thoi, cc mt hng v kh nng cung cp. Ch : - Mi bn d tr vt t c th p ng bi nhng ngi cung cp khc nhau. Tuy nhin mi mt hng trn mt bn d tr ch do mt ngi cung cp cung ng. - Mi n hng li c th cha nhiu mt hng do nhiu phn xng tiu th yu cu, lu rng trn n hng khng c lu thng tin ni ngi d tr v vy cn lu thng tin D tr - n hng (DT/H) b) H pht hng (PH): Theo di hng t khi nhn v, vo kho n khi pht hng v phn xng. - Hng v km phiu giao hng: Thng tin trn phiu giao hng + ni ct (tm) hng lu tp "Nhn hng". Thng tin trn phiu giao hng khng lu thng tin ngi s dng hng. - B phn th cng: Lm nhim v i chiu, cc cng vic tin hnh nh sau: + Hng ngy b phn thu hng, nhn hng in cc danh sch hng nhn v gi n b phn i chiu, trong danh sch u c ghi SH - n. + i chiu SH - n tm a ch pht hng b phn nhn hng pht cho ni nhn. + i chiu nhn ho n vi danh sch hng v, nu khp chuyn cho ti v tr tin, nu khng khp th trao i v cc bt nht gia n hng - Nhn hng - Ho n ( H / NH / H ). Vic v BLD c th v cc mc th hay tinh dn. Ban u cn c vo 3 chc nng: + t hng + Nhn hng + i chiu Tc nhn ngoi: + Phn xng + Ngi cp * SH n - SHMH - SH D tr * SHGH - SHMH - SH n hng  6.2. Bi tp 2 V BPC v BLD phn mc cho mt c s tn dng a. Biu phn cp chc nng(BPC) b. Biu lung d liu (BLD) * Mc khung cnh: * Mc nh:  * Mc di nh: + BLD mc di nh gii thch chc nng 1 - Cho vay   + BLD mc di nh gii thch chc nng 2 - Thu n Bi tp chng 2 2.1 Tm ch sai trong cc biu lung d liu di y:   2.2. Ti sao lung d liu vo / ra t kho d liu i khi khng c tn ? 2.3. Cc chc nng s cp l g? Trong BLD, chc nng s cp i hi iu g m thnh phn khc khng nht thit phi c ? 2.4. Trong BLD c khi no khng c tc nhn ngoi khng ? Ti sao? 2.5. Trong BLD nhng sai st no hay gp phi. Hy gii thch? 2.6. BLD cho ta bit mi quan h g gia cc thnh phn ca h thng? Chng 3: Cc phng tin v m hnh din t d liu 1. Khi nim din t d liu Mt h thng trong trng thi vn ng bao gm hai yu t l cc chc nng x l v d liu. Gia x l v d liu c mi quan h mt thit cht ch v bn thn d liu c mi lin kt ni b khng lin quan n x l l tnh c lp d liu. M t d liu c xem nh vic xc nh tn, dng d liu v tnh cht ca d liu; n khng ph thuc vo ngi s dng ng thi khng ph thuc vo yu cu tm kim v thay i thng tin. Trong chng ny thun tin cho phng php nghin cu chng ta ch tp trung cp n cc phng tin v m hnh din t d liu. l cc thng tin c quan tm n trong qun l; n c lu tr lu di, c x l v s dng trong h thng kinh doanh. C nhiu cng c m t d liu, l cc cch tru tng ho d liu, c bit l mi quan h ca d liu nhm ph bin nhng ci chung nht m con ngi ta c th trao i ln nhau. C nhiu cg c din t d liu, y chng ta cp ti 4 cng c ch yu: * M ho d liu (coding) * T in d liu (Data Dictionary) * M hnh thc th lin kt ER (Entity - Relationship) * M hnh quan h (Relationl Data Base Modeling) 2. S m ho 2.1. Khi nim m ho M l tn vit tt gn cho mt i tng no hay ni cch khc mi i tng cn c tn v vn t rat a s t tn cho i tng nh th no. Trong mi i tng gm nhiu thuc tnh khc nhau th yu cu m ho cho cc thuc tnh cng l yu cu cn thit. Ngoi ra, m ho cn l hnh thc chun ho d liu v bo mt d liu c bit trong cc h thng thng tin x l bng my tnh. Mt s th d v m ho: Khi ta cn xc nh mt cng dn th s chng minh th hoc s h chiu l m ca cng dn . KHi cn xc nh xe t hay xe my th bin s xe l m ca xe . 2.2. Cht lng ca vic m ho Trong thc t ta gp rt nhiu i tng cn m ho nh m ho ngnh ngh o to, m ho cc bnh, m s in thoi, m th sinh vin, th bo him y t, Chng ta c nhiu phng php m khc nhau. Do vy cn xc nh mt s tiu ch nh gi cht lng ca vic m ho: * M khng c nhp nhng: th hin nh x 1 - 1 gia m ho v gii m, mi i tng c xc nh r rng vi mt m ho nht nh. * Thch ng vi phng thc s dng: vic m ho c th tin hnh bng th cng nn d hiu, d gii m, vic m ho bng my i hi cc c php cht ch. * C kh nng m rng m: + Thm pha cui (sau) ca cc m c. + Xen m mi vo gia cc m c, thng m xen phi dng phng php cc nhy, nhy u n da vo thng k trnh tnh trng "bng n" m. * M phi ngn gn lm gim kch c ca m, y cng l mc tiu ca m ho. Tuy nhin i khi mu thun vi khi nim m rng m sau ny. * C tnh gi : tnh ng ngha ca m ; i khi tnh gi l nu yu cu i vi m cng khai, lm cho vic m ho thun tin d dng. 2.3. Cc kiu m ho a, M ho lin kt L dng cc s nguyn lin tip 000, 001, 002, m ho. * u im: + Khng nhp nhng + n gin + Thm pha sau * Nhc im: + Khng xen c + Thiu tnh gi cn phi c bng tng ng + Khng phn theo nhm b, M ho theo lt Dng cc s nguyn nhng phn ra tng lt (lp) cho tng loi i tng, trong mi lt dng m lin tip V d: M ho "ng kim" Vng 1 0001 - 0999 ng kim b Vng 2 0001 - 0099 vt Vng 3 0100 - 0299 cu . 0300 - 0499 bulng . 0500 - 0599 inh . 1000 - 1999 chi tit kim loi Vng n 1000 - 1099 st U * u im: + Khng nhp nhng. + n gin + M rng xen thm c * Nhc im: Thiu gi . c, M phn on Bn thn m phn thnh nhiu on, mi on mang mt ngha ring. V d: S ng k xe my 88AA999  V d: Bin s xe my ca ng X l 29 F9 6868 l bin xe ng k ti H Ni. * u im: + Khng nhp nhng + M rng, xen thm c + c dng kh ph bin + Cho php thit lp cc phng thc kim tra gin tip i vi m ca cc i tng. * Nhc im: + Qu di ( thao tc nng n. + Khng c nh + C th b bo ho d, m phn cp  Cc i tng c m ho theo ch phn cp cc chi tit nh dn. Mt hnh nh kh quen thuc ca m ho phn cp l nh s chng, tit, mc trong mt quyn sch. 1. Chng 1 1.1 Bi 1 1.2 Bi 2 2. Chng 2 2.1 Bi 3 2.1.1 Mc 1 2.1.2 Mc 2 2.2 Bi 4 2.3 Bi 5 * u im: + Ging nh phn on. + Tm kim d dng * Nhc im: ging phn on. e, M din ngha Gn mt tn ngn gon nhng hiu c cho mt i tng. V d: i bang tham gia gii Tiger cup c m bng cch ly 3 k t u nh sau: VIE: Vit Nam; THA: Thi Lan; SIN: Singapore; * u im: Tin dng cho x l bng tay. * Nhc im: Khng gii m c bng my tnh. 2.4. Cch la chn s m ho C nhiu phng php m ho khc nhau, c th s dng kt hp nhiu kiu t cht lng m tt nht. Vic la chn m ho cn da vo cc yu t sau: + Nghin cu vic s dng m sau ny + Nghin cu s lng cc i tng c m ho lng trc c s pht trin. + Nghin cu s phn b thng k cc i tng phn b theo lp. + Tm xem c nhng m ho no c dng trc cho cc i tng ny k tha. + Tho thun ngi dng + Th nghim trc khi dng chnh thc. 3. T in d liu T in d liu (cn gi t in yu cu) l b phn ca t liu trong phn tch thit k, n l vn phm gi hnh thc m t ni dung ca cc s vt, i tng theo nh ngha c cu trc. Trong BLD cc chc nng x l, kho d liu, lung d liu ch m t mc khi qut thng l tp hp cc khon mc ring l. Cc khi qut ny cn c m t chi tit ho hn thng qua cng c t in d liu. Cu to t in: t in d liu l s lit k c t chc cc phn t d liu thuc h thng, lit k cc mc t ch tn gi theo mt th t no v gii thch cc tn mt cch chnh xc cht ch ngn gn cho c ngi dng v ngi phn tch hiu chung ci vo, ci ra, ci lun chuyn. K php m t ni dung cho t in d liu tun theo bng sau: Kt cu d liuK php ngha Tun t Tuyn chn Lp= + [ | ]  ( ) **c to t v hoc Lp n ln d liu tu chn gii hn ch thch V d: Gi s c t ho n bn hng nh sau: S H: 123 ho n bn hng Ngy 01 - 01 - 09 Bn cho ng/b: Trn Tnh Mch Ti khon: LTM010254 a ch: 534 Hng Mnh, Tel : (04) 38226465/38692205 S TTM hngTn, quy cchn vn giS lngThnh tinGhi ch1 2 3 4X 30 Y 10 Z 20 X 10Xi mng Qut in Bn l inh 5 phnbao chic chic kg100000 500000 250000 15000200 10 5 1020000000 5000000 1250000 150000Tng cng:Bng ch: K ton trng Ngi np tin Ngi bn hng  Ta c mt phn d liu sau: *Xc nh mt t ho n nh sau* Ho n = S H + Ngy bn + Khch hng +  + Hng + S lng + Thnh tin + Tng cng + KT trng + Ngi bn *Xc nh thng tin v khch hng* Khch hng = H tn khch + Ti khon + a ch + in thoi * Xc nh thng tin v tng mt hng* Hng = M hng + Tn quy cch + n v tnh + n gi. * H tn khch hng cn c tch tn thun tin i vi tn Ting Vit* H tn khch = H m + Tn Mt v d khc l t in xc nh s in thoi S in thoi = [ s my ph | s bn ngoi ] s my ph = [ 2001 | 2002 | | 2999 ] s bn ngoi = 9 + [ s ni ht | s ng di ] s ni ht = s u + s thm nhp s ng di = (1 + m vng + s ni ht s u = [ 795 | 799 | 874 | 877 ] s thm nhp = * Bt k xu 4 ch s * 4. M hnh thc th lin kt E - R. 4.1. Khi nim M hnh thc th lin kt l cng c thnh lp lc d liu hay gi l biu cu trc d liu (BCD) nhm xc nh khung khi nim v cc thc th, thuc tnh, v mi lin h rng buc gia chng. Mc ch xc nh cc yu t: + D liu no cn x l. + Lin quan ni ti (cu trc). 4.2. Thc th v kiu thc th Thc th l mt i tng c quan quan tm n trong mt t chc, mt h thng, n c th l i tng c th hay tru tng. Thc th (theo Merise, 1991) phi tn ti, cn la ch c li cho qun l v phn bit c. V d: Cc khch hng u c ti khon ca h v cc nh cung cp cung cp cc mt hng. y cc i tng c quan tm: Ti khon l i tng c th  Khch hng Nh cung cp Mt hng nh ngha mt cch chnh xc hn ta a ra khi nim: Kiu thc th (entily type) v th hin thc th (entily instance). Kiu thc th l tp hp hoc mt lp cc thc th c cng c trng, cng bn cht. Th hin thc th l mt thc th c th, n l mt phn t trong tp hp hay lp ca kiu thc th. Sau ny trong cc ng dng trnh s dng nhiu khi nim ta ng nht thc th v kiu thc th. V d: Th hin thc th: ng Nguyn Vn Bnh, Ho n s 50, Mt hng X30 (thc th c th). Khoa tin hc, Ngnh x l nc thi (thc th tru tng) Kiu thc th tng ng: Khch hng ho n, hng, khoa, ngnh. Biu din thc th bng mt hnh hp ch nht trong ghi nhn khch hng, ngnh hc, sch.  Nhn xt: Trong mt bng d liu ta hnh dung c bng l kiu thc th, mi dng ng vi cc bn ghi l th hi thc th, cc ct ng vi cc thuc tnh ca thc th. 4.3 Lin kt v kiu lin kt Lin kt l s kt ni c ngha gia hai hay nhiu thc th phn nh mt s rng buc v qun l. V d: ng Nguyn Vn An lm vic phng ti v: Ho n s 50 gi cho khch hng L Vn ch; Sinh vin Trn Tnh Mch thuc lp Tin 45. Kiu lin kt l tp cc lin kt cng bn cht. Gia cc kiu thc th c th tn ti nhiu mi lin kt, mi mi lin kt xc nh mt tn duy nht. Biu din cc lin ktbng on thng ni gia hai kiu thc th. Cc dng kiu lin kt: Gi s ta c cc thc th A, B, C, D, Kiu lin kt l s xc nh c bao nhiu th hin ca kiu thc th ny c th kt hp vi bao nhiu th hin ca thc th kia. * Lin kt mt - mt (1 - 1) gia hai kiu thc th A, B l ng vi mt thc th trong A c mt thc th trong B v ngc li. Lin kt ny cn gi l lin kt tm thng v t xy ra trong thc t, thng thng mang c trng bo mt; chng hn mt chin dch qung co (pht ng) cho mt d n; mt s bo danh (ng vi mt mn thi) c mt s phch.  Ly kho u ny t vo u kia v ngc li. * Lin kt mt - nhiu (1 - N) gia hai kiu thc th A, B l ng vi mt thc th trong A c nhiu thc th trong B v ngc li ng vi mt thc th trong B ch c mt thc th trong B. N biu din kt ni bng on thng gia hai kiu thc th v thm trc ba (hay cn gi l chn g) v pha nhiu. V d: Mt lp c nhiu sinh vin (sinh vin thuc vo mt lp); Mt khch hng c nhiu ti khon (ti khon thuc v mt khch hng).  Ly kho u mt t vo u nhiu. * Lin kt nhiu - nhiu (N - N) gia hai kiu thc th A, B l ng vi mt thc th trong A c nhiu thc th trong B v ngc li ng vi mt thc th trong B c nhiu thc th trong B. Biu din lin kt ny bng chn g hai pha.  Ly kho ca c hai thc th. d biu din ngi ta dng phng php thc th ho bng cch b sung thc th trung gian bin i lin kt nhiu - nhiu thnh hai lin kt mt - nhiu.  y A/B l thc th trung gian gia A v B; tng t cho MH/NCC. Biu din: xem lin kt ny nh mt thc th (thc th ho) Nhiu bn: cng biu din di dng mt thc th V d: Thi kho biu * nh ngha thuc tnh: l gi tr th hin mt c im no ca mt thc th hay mt lin kt. Ho n 30: ngy 20/5/2009, tng s tin 4000000 ng Vn phng phm Hng H - Bt bi: gi 1500/chic, ng gi 10 chic Thin long - Bt bi: gi 2000/chic, ng gi 12 chic. * Kiu thuc tnh: + Tn gi + M t: d liu gn lion vi thc th l thc tnh Khng kho + Kt ni: nhn din kiu thc th trong thc h hay mi lin kt. Thuc tnh kt ni l kho quan h ny, l m t quan h khc. + Kho: dng phn bit cc thc th hay lin kt nn khng c cp nht. 5. M hnh quan h Biu din bng bng ca cc kiu thc th lin kt: Mi bng hai chiu l kiu thc th; mi ct l mt thuc tnh, mi dng l thc th. Trong m hnh v chnh l th hin nhng ng truy nhp v n th hin cc kt ni v phi tri theo cc mi ni. Trong m hnh quan h khi nim xut pht l bng (file). Cc khi nim c bn: i s quan h quan nim theo ngha rng khng nht thit l thc th. Cc ph thuc hm, chun ho 1NF, 2NF, 3NF chng ta s cp chi tit trong chng sau. V d v quan h: n hng - mt hng - ngi ccp - ngcc/mh. M hnh thc th lin kt E - R       Bng quan h th hin nh sau: Ngi cung cpSH - NCCTn NCCa chTi khonC300Hng HHN3420C301Thin LongHCM4218A18Gang thp TNgTN2937A20Gang thp BHoBH4812Mt hngSH - MHTn HngM tng gi425Bt bi1000 ci449Mc100 lM97St (81 tM70St (202 tNgi cung cp - Mt hngSH - NCCSH - MHn giC300425C300449C301425A18M97n hngSH - HNgy - nSH - NCCPTvn chuyn214220/5/2009C300 t214320/5/2009A18 t223915/7/2009C300Tu ho 6. Bi tp 3 Khi chm cng dng bng (c, t, m,p, r, g) Cng nhn c s hiu c, tn l t lm trn my c s hiu m, phn xng p m ng r l trng phn xng, vi s gi tch lu l g. Cc thuc tnh c th thu thp nh sau: Tn thuc tnhGii thch nghaSH - myS hiu myLoi - myChng loiSH - PXS hiu phn xngTn - PXTn phn xngTrng - PXTn ca trng phn xng Tn - CNTn cng nhnBc CNTay ngh ca cng nhnCh sCh s lng cho nhng bc thThi gianThi gian lm vicTng s giS gi tng cng ca cc my chy ca 1 phn xngThngTn ca thng hin ti Bi tp Chng 3 3.1. Khch sn A khng nhn thanh ton bng sc c nhn hay th tn dng m ch thanh ton bng tin mt hoc sc lun chuyn (hoc c 2 loi). Hy xc nh vic thanh ton bng t in d liu. Thanh ton = ? 3.2. Trong nh ngha bng t in sau, hy ch ra ch sai: Tng gi tr ca mt hng = gi bn + thu + gi tr gia tng. 3.3. Xy dng m hnh thc th lin kt E - R cho h thng qun l th vin. H thng gm cc thc th sau: + c gi + Sch + Mn tr 3.4. Xy dng m hnh thc th lin kt E - R cho h thng qun l s dng vt t ca x nghip. H thng gm cc thc th sau: + Phn xng (Khoa) + Vt t + S dng vt t (mn, tr, lnh) 3.5. Thut ton tch lc quan h thnh dng chun 3NF c pht biu nh sau: Cho U = {Tp thuc tnh}, F = {Tp ph thuc hm} Kt lun: R(U) c tch thnh R1,(U1), R2,(U2), , Rk,(Uk). Vi Ri dng 3NF. Php tch ( = (R1, R2,, Rk) Thut ton: Chng IV: Kho st hin trng v xc lp d n 1. ai cng giai on kho st 1.1 Mc ch Kho st hin trng v xc lp d n l giai on 1 ca qu trnh phn tch v thit k h thng. N l giai on nghin cu s b v xc nh tnh kh thi ca dn n i vi h thng mi. Ngi ta thng dng mt s tn cho giai on ny nh sau: + Nghin cu tnh kh thi + Nghin cu hin trng Mc ch cui cng ca giai on ny l "k kt c 1 hp ng tho thun" xy dng c h thng thng tin i vi h thng kinh doanh, t chc cho d thnh vn hay khng thnh vn. 1.2 Yu cu cn thc hin + Kho st nh gi s hot ng ca h thng c + xut mc tiu, u tin cho h thng mi + xut tng cho gii php mi + Vch k hoch cho d n. 2. Tm hiu v nh gi hin trng Tm hiu v nh gi hin trng nhm pht hi nhng ngc im c bn ca h thng c ng thi n cng nh hng cho h thng mi cn gii quyt. 2.1. Phng php kho st hin trng  * Cc mc kho st, cho d l kho st s b, c phn bit 4 mc theo th t: + Thao tc, tha hnh (Tc v) + iu phi, qun l (iu phi) + Quyt nh lnh o (Lnh o, quyt nh) + Chuyn gia c vn (T vn) Mi my mc c vai tr nh hng n hot ng v s pht trin chung ca h thng. * Hnh thc kho st: C nhiu hnh thc kho st, chng c s dng kt hp nng cao tnh hiu qu, tnh xc thc, tnh khch quan, tnh ton din ca phng php lun: + Quan st theo di: - Chnh thc: C chun b, c thng bo trc - Khng chnh thc: Lu rng vi quan st khng chnh thc thng cho ta cc kt lun khch quan hn. Qu trnh theo di c ghi chp v s dng cc phng php rt ra kt lun c tnh thuyt phc v khoa hc. * Phng vn (Inter view) - S dng cc cu hi trc tip (ng) - S dng cc cu hi m - S dng cc bng hi, mu iu tra 2.2. Thng tin thu c cn phi phn loi theo cc tiu ch. * Hin ti /tng lai: Thng tin cho hin ti phn nh chung v mi trng, hon cnh, cc thng tin c li ch cho nghin cu h thng qun l. Cc thng tin cho tng lai c pht biu t cc mong mun, phn nn, cc d kin k hoch. Cc thn tin cho tng lai c th c thc ngng khng c pht biu cn c gi hoc cc thng tin v thc cn c d on. * Tnh / ng / bin i: + Cc thng tin tnh c th cc thng tin s ng, cu trc ho, Cc phng ban, chc v, + Cc thng tin ng thng cc thng tin v khng gian nh cc ng di chuyn ti liu, v thi gian nh thi gian x l, hn nh chuyn giao thng tin. + Cc thng tin bin i: Quy tc qun l, cc quy nh ca Nh nc, ca c quan lm nn cho vic x l thng tin. Cc th tc, nhng cng thc tnh ton cng nh cc iu kin khi ng cng vic. Cc quy trnh x l, * Mi trng / ni b: Phn bit cc thng tin ca ni b hoc t mi trng c tc ng vi h thng. Mt im ng lu trong vic phn loi l ch trng vic nh gi cc tiu chun nh Tn suet xut hin ( im nh, im trng), chnh xc v thi gian sng. 2.3. Pht hin cc yu km ca hin trng v cc yu cu cho tng lai * Yu km: + Thiu, vng nh thiu mt chc nng no , thiu phng tin x l thng tin, thiu con ngi thc hin, qun l, + Km hiu lc (hu suet thp) do cc yu t - Phng php x l khng cht ch. - C cu t chc bt hp l - Lu chuyn thng tin bt hp l - Giy t ti liu trnh by km - S n tc, qu ti. + Tn ph cao: Thc cht s tn ph cn c nh gi theo mt tiu chun v kha cnh no nh yu t thi gian, con ngi, qu trnh. * Yu cu ny sinh: + Nhng nhu cu v thng tin cha c p ng + Cc nguyn vng ca nhn vin + D kin, k hoch ca lnh o 3. Xc nh phm vi, mc tiu v hn ch ca d n Mt h thng thng tin thng kh phc tp m khng th thc hin trong mt thi gian nht nh bi vy ta cn hn ch mt s rng buc h thng mang tnh kh thi nht nh. Ti thi im ny cn xc nh cc mc tiu cho d n, v chnh cc mc tiu ny l thc o kim chng v nghim thu d n sau ny. 3.1. Phm vi Khoanh vng d n cn thc hin vi cc phng php * Phng php going (well) theo chiu su: hn ch phm vi hp v i su. Phng php ny d nhng khng gii quyt c tng th v sau ny kh pht trin cc h con thnh nht th. * Phng php h (lake) theo chiu rng: gii quyt tng th, nht qun, mang tnh tp trung ho cao c nh hng lu di. Trn thc t thng chn gii php trung ho c hai gii php ny. 3.2. Mc tiu ca h thng + Khc phc nhng yu km hin ti + p ng nhng nhu cu trong tng lai, th hin chin lc pht trin lu di ca c quan. + Th hin cc hn ch v thi gian, chi ph, con ngi. 3.3. Hn ch + Ti chnh: Kinh ph cho php trin khai + Con ngi: Kh nng qun l, nm bt k thut mi, kh nng v o to, tc v. + Thit b: Cc k thut cho php + Mi trng: Cc yu t nh hng v mi trng, x hi + Thi gian: Cc rng buc ca h thng thi gian hon thnh, phn phi ti liu. 4. Phc ho v nghin cu tnh kh thi ca gii php Sau khi kho st v nh gi s b h thng c cng nh a ra gii php cho h thng mi, giai on phc ho tnh kh thi cc k quan trng. N quyt nh h d n h thng ny c tr thnh hin thc hay khng ?. Phc ho ny nhm vo cc iu kin sau: + Tho mn cc yu cu bn A (bn ch u t) hay khng?: Thng cc yu cu ny c a ra di dng cu hi ct yu m nh phn tch cn phi tr li. + nh hng gii quyt, thc hin nh th no? Xc nh cc mc t ng ho khc nhau: + T chc li cc hot ng th cng. + T ng ho mt phn, ngha l c my tnh t gip nhng khng o ln c cu t chc. + T ng ho lm thay i v c cu t chc. Phn tch tnh hiu qu v nh gi tnh kh thi (CHi ph / li ch) + Kh thi v k thut. + Kh thi v tc v ( v x l thng tin) + Kh thi v kinh t. Tm li, nh phn tch thit k thong a ra mt lot gii php tin vic so snh, nh gi ri chn la mt gii php ti u chp nhn c. 5. Xt th d (Case Study) H thng cung ng vt t ca mt x nghip c trnh by chng trc. H thng gm phn h t hng v mua hng (gi tt h H), h nhn hng t nh cung cp v pht hng ti cc phn xng d tr (gi tt l h PH) v b phn i chiu th cng thanh ton vi nh cung cp. Qua giai on kho st ta nh gi hin trng ca h thng. Yu km: + Thiu vng: Khng c kho hng thng dng lu tm thi cc mt hng nhp v v tm thi cha s dng. + Km hou lc do: - Gii quyt n hng, d tr qu chm, do cch i chiu th cng v cch ly thng tin. - Theo di vic thc hin n hng khng st, xy ra nhiu sai st do phn tn v x l. + Tn ph: Do qu trnh i chiu th cng khp t khi d tr, n hng, hng nhn, phiu giao hng v ho n thanh ton. Mc tiu: + Thm kho hng thng dng. + Khc phc hai iu km hiu lc bng cch t chc li rt ngn qu trnh gii quyt 1 d tr hng. + T chc li theo di thc hin n hng cht ch, trnh sai st. + C gng tn dng phn mm v phn cng. Phc ho gii quyt: y ta a ra 5 gii php cn nhc la chn.  Trong : H t hng c chc nng: - t hng - Theo di vic thc hin n hng H pht hng c chc nng: - Qun l kho d tr - Tip nhn hng - Pht hng cho cc phn xng sn xut.  nh gi gii php * Gii php 1: To knh lin lc kt ni hai phn h. Gii php ny vi phm tnh kh thi v mt k thut v gi thit hai my khng tng thch. * Gii php 2: Gp hai h H vo h PH v ngc li nhm loi b mt my tnh. Gii php ny khng kh thi v vi phm v mt tc v (tc nghip). * Gii php 3: Loi b hai my tnh a ton b cc nhim v vo trung tm my tnh ca x nghip. Thc cht ca gii php ny l trang b my tnh mi, vit li phn mm, x l tp trung, Gii php ny i hi chi ph ln, tn km hn. N ch c li v c tnh kh thi khi iu kin kinh t cho php. * Gii php 4: Gi nguyn hin trng ang c, vn dng b my tnh c, chng trnh c. Thc cht khng pht trin h thng. Thc cht gii php ny khng c ngha g nhng i khi cha tm c gii php no hay hn th tm thi chp nhn. * Gii php 5: Chuyn nhim v nhn d tr t h t hng sang h pht hng. Nh vy h H ch lm nhim v mua hng; H PH va qun l d tr, va nhn v pht hng. Trn y ta a ra 5 gii php c tnh tng i v khng c chun mc no c. Nu xt chi tit hn nh phn tch cn thit phi tnh ton c th v nhiu kha cnh khng nh vic la chn mt gii php v ph nh cc gii php cn li. 6. Lp d tr v k hoch trin khai d n a) Giai on hnh thnh hp ng b) D tr thit b c) K hoch trin khai d n - T chc - Tin 7. Bi tp bi 4 " H thng cung ng vt t ca x nghip Z" Bi tp chng 4 4.1. Ti sao phi kho st hin trng ca h thng c khi xy dng h thng thng tin mi. 4.2. Trnh by cc phng php kho st hin trng h thng m anh ch bit. C nht thit khi kho st h thng ngi phn tch vin phi trc tip n tn ni kho st khng? Ti sao? 4.3. Hy thc tp kho st h thng thng tin phc v qun l c quan v vit cc yu cu mc tiu ca d n tin hc ho, gi s ta chn mt trong cc d n sau: - H thng qun l th vin - H thng qun l nhn s / ng vin - H thng nhn s / tnh lng - H thng qun l vt t - H thng qun l khen thng - H thng qun l hc tp ca hc sinh trng ph thng - H thng qun l hc tp ca sinh vin trng i hc, cao ng - H thng tuyn sinh i hc - H thng qun l kinh doanh trong lnh vc no . - H thng qun l khch sn - H thng qun l sn xut ca nh my - H thng qun l tn dng / tit kim - H thng qun l thu - H thng qun l mng my tnh - H thng hch ton k ton - H thng qun l bnh n ca bnh vin, Chng 5: Phn tch h thng v x l 1. Khi nim Phn tch h thng theo ngha chung nht l kho st nhn din v phn nh cc thnh phn ca mt phc hp v ch ra cc mi lin quan gia chng. Theo ngha hp phn tch h thng l giai on 2, i sau giai on kho st s b, l giai on bn l gia kho st s b v giai on i su vo cc thnh phn h thng. 2. i cng ng li thc hin phn tch: + Phn tch t trn xung (Top - Down): phn tch t i th n chi tit, th hin BLD. + i t h thng c sang h thng mi + Chuyn t m t vt l sang m t logic. Kt qu ca giai on ny ta xy dng c cc biu m t logic chc nng x l. Giai on ny gi l giai on thit k logic chun b cho giai on thit k vt l. Yu cu i hi thit k logic mt cch hon chnh trc khi thit k vt l. 3. Phn tch h thng t trn xung 3.1. Biu phn cp chc nng BPC y l biu m t tnh. Bng k thut phn mc ta xy dng biu di dng cy. Trong mi nt tng ng vi mt chc nng. Ti giai on kho st s b h thng ta lit k cc chc nng ca h thng. Cc chc nng ny phn theo nhm chc nng v xp gn nhau. Chng c nh s theo t t v theo nhm. Dng phn tch nh sau:  1. Chc nng 1 2. Chc nng 2 3. Chc nng 3 4. Chc nng 4 5. Chc nng 5 6. Chc nng 6 7. Chc nng 7 8. Chc nng 8 9. Chc nng 9 n. Chc nng n Mc 1: Nt gc l chc nng tng qut ca h thng Mc 2: Phn r chc nng thp hn l chc nng nhm. Cc mc tip theo c phn r tip tc v mc cui cng l chc nng nh nht khng phn chia c na. Cui cng ta c biu phn cp chc nng nh sau:  3.2 Biu lung d liu M t cc chc nng ca h thng theo tin trnh (process). y l biu m t ng. Phng php cu trc BLD: BLD i vi h thng nh, n gin thng thng c xy dng d dng, khng cng knh, d xem xt; tuy nhin i vi h thng ln phc tp chng hn nh cc h kinh doanh th cch tt nht l nn tun theo cc hng dn n gin c c mt biu tt: + Xc nh cc thnh phn tnh trong h thng, c ngha l cc i tng c cha d liu. + Xc nh cc thao tc x l chnh m n s dng v d liu sinh ra, ng thi xc nh cc dng d liu gia chng. + M rng - khai trin v lm mn dn cc tin trnh ca biu . + Chnh l li biu tng bc thch hp v m bo tnh logic. Mt k thut s dng kh ph bin phn r biu l k thut phn mc. C 3 mc c bn c cp n: * Mc 1: BLD mc khung cnh (Context Data Flow Diagram) * Mc 2: BLD mc nh (Top Level Data Flow Diagram) * Mc 3: BLD mc di nh (Levelling Data Flow Diagram) a, Mc 1 - BLD mc ng cnh y l m hnh h thng mc tng qut nht, ta xem c h thng nh mt chc nng. Ti mc ny h thng ch c duy nht mt chc nng. Cc tc nhn ngoi v ng thi cc lung d liu vo ra t tc nhn ngoi n h thng c xc nh. V d: H thng c xc nh 1 chc nng HT, tc nhn ngoi l X v Y, 2 lung d liu t h thng ra X v Y. Mt lung d liu X vo h thng.  b, Mc 2 - BLD mc nh L m hnh BLD nhiu chc nng c phn r t BLD mc ng cnh vi cc chc nng phn r tng ng mc 2 ca BPC. Cc nguyn tc phn r nh sau: + Cc lung d liu c bo ton + Cc tc nhn ngoi bo ton + C th xut hin cc kho d liu + B sung thm cc ngun d liu ni ti nu cn thit. Vi v d trn, gi s h thng c nh ngha nh sau: Chc nng = HT ( C ( D D liu: Xut hin kho K c, Mc 3 - BLD mc di nh BLD mc di nh c phn r t BLD mc nh. Cc chc nng c nh ngha ring tng biu hoc ghp li thnh mt biu trong trng hp biu n gin. Cc thnh phn ca biu c pht trin nh sau: + V chc nng: phn r chc nng cp trn thnh chc nng cp di thp hn. + Lung d liu: - Vo / ra mc trn th lp li (bo ton) mc di (phn r) - Thm lung ni b + Kho d liu: dn dn xut hin theo nhu cu ni b + Tc nhn ngoi: xut hin y mc khung cnh, mc di khng th thm g. V d: t biu mc nh trn ta c BLD mc di nh vi nh ngha sau: B = E ( F; C= I ( J; D = H ( L; Thm kho d liu K1  Nhn xt: s mc phn r thng thng l 7 2 mc tu phc tp ca h thng. V d: Hot ng tn dng s lun chuyn thng tin Mc khung cnh ?  i vi khch hng n vay tin ngn hng th phi c mt h s (gm: n xin vay, giy chng minh th) v yu cu c vay. Nu h s hp l hoc khng hp l th h thng s tr li khch hng. i vi ngn hng nu yu cu v h s ca khch vay hp l, tc l yu cu ca khch hng c p ng th ngn hng lp mt ti khon tng ng vi kh c vay m ngn hng quy nh v s ti khon, thi gian vay, mc li suet v ngy hon tr. Khch vay phi thanh ton (gc + li) cho ngn hng theo dng hn ghi trn kh c vay, nu qu hn khch hng khng n tr ngn hng th h thng s thng bo ti khch hng ng thi p dng mc li sut qu hn. n k hn hon tr khch vay n thanh ton (tr n) b phn thu n tnh ra s tin m khch hng phi tr, cn c vo ngy vay, ngy hon tr v li sut. Sau h thng i chiu vi ti khon gc, in ho n thanh ton v thng bo ti khch hng. 3.3. Xy dng BPC mi ca h thng S phn cp (r) chc nng th hin ci nhn tng qut v h thng, y l bc phn tch h thng v x l. Gm c cc mc sau: Mc 1: Qun l ton b h thng thng tin tn dng Mc 2: Gm cc chc nng sau: + Cp nht d liu: - Khch hng - Lp kh c + Thu n: - ng hn - Qu hn - Xc nhn hon tr + Thng k v tra cu: - Thng k khch vay - Thng k n qu hn - Tra cu theo m khch + In n: - In ho n thanh ton - In phiu bo n Hot ng tn dng ch yu cho vay v thu n  * BLD mc khung cnh:  * BLD mc nh * nh ngha chc nng 1: * nh ngha chc nng 2: 4. Chuyn BLD mc vt l sang BLD mc logic Do phng php phn tch c cu trc nn trong qu trnh pht trin h thng mt u th quan trng nht trong thc hnh l tch bch chnh thc cch nhn "Vt l" v cch nhn "Logic" ca h thng. bc trc chng ta cp xy dng BLD mc vt l v n lm tin cho nh phn tch thit k chuyn i thnh biu BLD mc logic. BLD vt l ca h thng m t cch thc h thng thc hin cc nhim v ca n, ai lm g, lm u, mt bao nhiu thi gian, Trong khi BLD mc logic b qua nhng rng buc, cc yu t vt l, n ch quan tm chc nng no l cn cho h thng v thng tin no l cn thc hin cho chc nng . Ni mt cch n gin, BLD vt l thng c dng trong kho st h thng hin ti (h thng c) v trong thit k h thng mi (khi I, IV), cn cc BLD logic c dng cho vic phn tch cc yu cu ca h thng c c ln mi (khi II, III). S phn bit hai khi nim vt l v logic l nhn t trong mi phng php lun h thng c cu trc. Loi b cc yu t vt l ca BLD vt l (qu trnh tru tng ho: lc b cn li ci tinh tu nht) Cn lu gt b: + Ngi, thit b h thng thc hin + Pht hin nhng chc nng gn lin vi bin php x l ( ch tn ti nhng bin php tm thi). + Cc cu trc BLD gn lin vi cu trc. Bin php: + Loi b d, b ngn t + Kh v cha thy r v th phn r chc nng xung mc thp. nh ( Lc b ch gi li chc nng gn lin vi mc ch t chc li biu : gn cc chc nng gn gi thnh cm nh vt l nh logic ( ( ( V d: T BLD  Biu lung d liu mc khung cnh    i chiu th cng - B th cng + H H - lm n hng + H PH - ghi nhn hng v pht hng Biu lung d liu * Trin khai chc nng 3 (nhiu ng vo ra) Loi b yu t vt l - Chc nng thun vt l 1.3.2.2 - 1.1 thnh 1 1.2 ( 2 3.1, 3.2 ( 4 2.1 ( 3 2.3 ( 5 4.1, 1.4 ( 7 3.4 ( 6 5. Chuyn t BLD ca h thng c sang h thng mi V sao chuyn BLD h thng c sang h thng mi mc logic?: h thng mi tha hng nhng ct li tinh tu ca h thng c, khc v ci t. * Xem li: + Nhng nhc im ca h thng c: Thiu chc nng, hiu sut thp, lng ph. + Cc yu cu, mc tiu ca h thng mi: C th khoanh li 1 s vng l cc vng thay i. i vi nhng vng thay i s c sp xp li sao cho: - Lung vo / ra: giao din i vi nhng vng cn li phi bo ton. - Xc nh chc nng tng qut ca vng thay i - Xo BLD bn trong, lp li cc chc nng t nh: bin i trung gian (kim tra, thm,) v cc trung tm bin i. - Nhu cu v kho d liu, lp cc lung d liu Tr li v d (Case Study): Qun l s dng vt t Nhc im ca h thng c: + Thiu kho hng thng dng (thiu hn 1 chc nng trong BLD) + Chm: i chiu th cng (li ci t nn khng th hin BLD) + Theo di thc hin n hng c nhiu sai st (nhn hng v tr hng c th theo 1 phn). + Lng ph chnh i chiu th cng (cng khng thy c BLD)  6. Bi tp 5 Xem li v d mc 4, v 5 (phn trn) Bi tp chng 5 5.1. tng c bn ca phn tch h thng v x l l g? Gm cc bc v tiu chun no? 5.2. Khi xy dng biu phn cp chc nng ta da vo cc yu t no ? 5.3. C s xy dng BLD cc mc: Khung cnh, mc nh, mc di nh. Gia BLD v BPC c mi lin h g? Tiu chun no nh gi biu xy dng l hp l v c tnh logic. 5.4. BLD mc vt l v mc logic khc nhau nhng im no? 5.5. Ti sao cc chc nng ca BLD c gn nhn (nh s) theo dng phn cp ? 5.6. Hy thc hin vic phn tch v chc nng x l ca cc h thng a ra trong phn bi tp chng 4 (cu 4.2.3). Chng 6: Phn tch h thng v d liu 1. i cng Phn tch h thng bao gm vic phn tch v x l v phn tch v d liu. Chng ta tch tm thi vic phn tch d liu v d liu c tnh c lp tng i. D liu l i tng ca x l. Mc ch ca giai on phn tch h thng v d liu l: Lp lc d liu hay gi l biu cu trc d liu BCD. H thng d liu lu gi lu di: - Thng tin l g, bao gm d liu g. - Mi lin quan: Xc nh lin quan gia cc d liu Phng php thc hin: th hin hai cch tip cn: * M hnh thc th lin kt: phng php ny trc quan hn i t trn xung di, bng cch xc nh cc thc th, mi lin kt gia chng ri n cc thuc tnh. Phng php ny bao trim c nhiu thng tin, tuy nhin kt qu hay tha * M hnh quan h: Xut pht t danh sch cc thuc tnh ri i n cc lc quan h. Phng php ny i t di ln, kt qu l va cho nhng kt xut x l. Chng ta nn lm theo hai cch so snh. 2. Thnh lp BCD theo m hnh thc th lin kt (m hnh E - R) Trc tin ta phi thu thp thng tin theo 3 yu t: + Kiu thc th + Kiu lin kt + Cc thuc tnh 2.1. Pht hin cc kiu thc th pht hin cc kiu thc th ta thng tm t 3 ngun: + Cc ti nguyn: vt t, ti chnh, con ngi, mi trng + Cc giao dch: l cc thng tin n t mi trng bn ngoi nhm kch ng mt chui cc hot ng no ca h thng chng hn nh n hng, ho n, + Cc thng tin cu trc ho: s sch, h s, cc bng biu quy nh, .. 2.2. Pht hin cc kiu lin kt Trn thc t c rt nhiu cc lin kt gia cc thc th nhng ta ch ghi nhn cc kiu lin kt c ch cho cng tc qun l v cc lin kt gia cc kiu thc th m ta va pht hin trn. * Lin kt 1 - nhiu: l cc lin kt thng hay gp nht, thng thng qua cc ng truy nhp, khng phi mt bc m c ln theo kho c th qua nhiu tp khc nhau. Cc lin kt 1 - nhiu thng l:  V d: Mi lin quan thng c din t bng cc gii t s hu "cho, thuc, bi, ca, "  * Lin kt nhiu - nhiu: c th lin kt nhiu bn, nhiu pha. Trn biu n phi c th hin bng mt kiu thc th trung gian vi kho l t hp kho ca cc bn tham gia. V d: 2.3. Pht hin cc thuc tnh Thuc tnh kho nhn din (kho n hoc kho kp). Cc thuc tnh m t ch xut hin mi kiu thc th, dng m t cc c trng ca thc th. Thuc tnh kt ni: l thuc tnh th hin vai tr kt ni gia 2 kiu thc th. N l thuc tnh kho nhn din thc th ny v ng thi xut hin l thuc tnh m t thc th khc. V d: Vic xut nhp vt t ca mt c s sn xut c tin hnh nh sau: Khi xut hoc nhp vt t km theo phiu nhp / xut kho c nhp vo my. Phiu c dng sau: n v:. Phiu nhp / xut kho Quyn s: S: Ngy .. thng . nm . Tn ngi lp: B phn: Nhp vo kho: .. Ghi c ti khon S TTTn hngn v tnhS lngGi n vThnh tinGhi chXin nhpThc nhpCngCng thnh tin (Vit bng ch) Ngi nhp / xut Th kho K ton trng Th trng n v y s xut hin 2 kiu thc th l phiu nhp/xut v dng phiu nhp/xut. Chng ta xem xt li v d v h thng Qun l vt t: Cc thc th: (1) Ti nguyn: Ngi cp Phn xng Tn kho Mt hng (2) Giao dch: n hng - dng n hng Giao hng - dng giao hng Ho n - dng ho n Pht hng - dng pht hng D tr - dng d tr (3) Thng tin cu trc: (a s l cc lien kt phn nh bng s sch) Xut / nhp kho Cc lin kt: D tr / n hng (nhiu - nhiu) Mt hng / Ngi cp (1 - nhiu) Qua s b ta v c biu nh sau: Thng tin tnh hung (a vo trong tng lai)  3. Lp biu cu trc d liu (BCD) theo m hnh quan h 3.1. Khi nim ton hc v m hnh quan h M hnh quan h l tp con ca cc tch cc ca cc min (Domain) R = { A1, A2, .., An}; Ai, i = 1..n l tp hu hn cc thuc tnh r(R) hay r(A1, A2, .., An) Biu din mt quan h bng trong ct l cc thuc tnh, dng l cc b c th t, n l bc ca R hay R l quan h n ngi. V d: Ta c bng quan h Nhn vin NHAN VIEN( H tn, nm sinh, ni lm vic, lng) H tnNm sinhNi lm vicLngL Vn A1970i hc H Ni3500000Hong Th B1950Vin KH Vit Nam4500000........ t1 = ( L Vn A, 1970, i hc H Ni, 3500000) l mt b ca quan h NHAN VIEN. Kho quan h R l tp con K ( (A1, A2, , An) sao cho Vi ( t1, t2 ( R s ( A( K sao cho t1(A) # t2(A) c ngha l khng tn ti hai b m c gi tr bng nhau trn mi thuc tnh cc b ca K l duy nht. R(A, B, C) l lc quan h R l tn lc quan h (A, B, C) l tp cc thuc tnh * nh ngha ph thuc hm (Function dependence) : Thuc tnh B gi l ph thuc hm vo thuc tnh A nu nh trong R bt c 2 b (a1, b1, c1) (a2, b2, c2) m a1 = a2 th b1 = b2; a1( A th b1(B. Ta k hiu ph thuc hm A ( B ( A xc nh B) * Cc tnh cht ca ph thuc hm (Tin Amstrong) Gi s A, B, C l tp cc thuc tnh th: + Tnh phn x: A ( B + Tnh chiu: A(B, C th A(B v A(C. + Tnh gp: A ( B, A ( C th A(B,C + Tnh tng cng: A(B th A,C (B vi C bt k + Tnh truyn ng (bc cu): A(B, B(C th A(C + Tnh gi truyn ng: A(B; B,C(D th A,C(D *Mt s nh ngha v chun: + Ph thuc hm s ng (khng b phn): mt ph thuc hm A(B gi l s ng ( khng tn ti A' ( A: A' (B. + Ph thuc hm trc tip (khng bc cu): mt ph thuc hm A(B gi l trc tip ( trong R khng tn ti C (C (A,B) m A (C v C(B. * Cc dng chun: - Chun ho: Chun ho l quan h trong mi min ca mt thuc tnh ch cha gi tr nguyn t, tc l khng phn nh c na. - Dng chun 1 (1NF): mt quan h R gi l chun 1 nu nh cc min thuc tnh l min n. - Dng chun 2 (2NF): mt dng chun gi l chun 2 nu nh n l chun 1 v ph thuc hm gia kho v cc thuc tnh khc l ph thuc hm s ng. - Dng chun 3 (3NF): mt dng chun l chun 3 nu nh n l chun 2 v ph thuc hm gia kho v cc thuc tnh khc l ph thuc hm trc tip. * Nguyn tc: Mt quan h c chun ho c th tch thnh 1 hoc nhiu quan h chun ho khc m khng lm mt mt thng tin. V d: Quan h SINH VIEN (mn thi, m SV, Tn, tui, a ch, im) c tch thnh 2 quan h SINH VIEN( m SV, Tn, Tui, a ch) KQTHI (mn thi, m SV, im) 3.2. Thnh lp biu BCD thnh lp biu BCD ta chia thnh 4 bc: * Bc 1: Thnh lp danh sch cc thuc tnh (danh sch xut pht): xut pht t nhng "im" khc nhau dn n c nhiu ngun danh sch xut pht t cc ngun. + Danh sch nhng thng tin c bn + Xut pht t 1 hay 1 s ti liu xut ra ca h thng, nht cc tiu thc (ci ra ( ci cn) "Phng php ci ra". * Bc 2: Tu chnh li danh sch + Loi b cc tn ng ngha + Loi b cc thuc tnh tnh ton V d: Thnh tin = n gi * S lng (trong mt ho n) ( V y l giai on logic ch tnh n y v hp l cha ni n tin li, sau ny n giai on thit k c th ta li b sung thm thuc tnh ny). + Loi b cc thuc tnh tch lu (thc cht cng t thuc tnh tnh ton) V d: S hng tn kho = ( nhp - ( xut + Thay th cc thuc tnh khng n bi cc thuc tnh n. * Bc 3: Tm cc ph thuc hm c trong danh sch ni trn Vic xc nh cc ph thuc hm thc cht phi da vo ngha trn thc t. + R tng cp thuc tnh trong nhng danh sch trn, hoc my mc v n gin hn l lp bng 2 chiu. + Tm cc ph thuc hm v phi khng n (gm nhiu thuc tnh) * Bc 4: Chun ho: c 2 phng php - Phng php 1: Phn r Ban u ta coi tt c cc thuc tnh nm trong mt quan h ri tin hnh phn r quan h ny i) Dng 1NF: Tch nhm cc thuc tnh lp + Phn cn li c th to thnh mt quan h, tm kho cho n. + Phn tch ra + Kho trn lp thnh quan h khc. Tm kho ii) Dng 2NF: Loi b ph thuc hm b phn vo kho bng cch tch ra cng vi b phn ca kho ni trn ( thng thng kho l b phn ni trn) to ra cc quan h mi. iii) Dng 3NF: Loi b ph thuc hm khng kho bng cch tch nhng ph thuc hm khng c kho tham gia, tch ra + thuc tnh v tri (kho). Hay ni khc i l tch cc nhm thuc tnh ph thuc hm vo thuc tnh khng phi l kho, nhm tch ra l mt quan h c kho mi. V d: Danh sch cc thuc tnh SH - n SH - NCC Tn - NCC /C - NCC Ngy - H M - MH M t - MH n v tnh n gi S lng t Thnh tin Tng cngDng 1NF SH - n SH - NCC Tn - NCC /C - NCC Ngy - H SH - n M - MH M t - MH n v tnh n gi S lng tDng 2NF SH - n SH - NCC Tn - NCC /C - NCC Ngy - H SH - n M - MH S lng t M - MH M t - MH n v tnh n gi Dng 3NF SH - n SH - NCC Ngy - H SH - NCC Tn - NCC /C - NCC SH - n M - MH S lng t M - MH M t - MH n v tnh n gi - Phng php 2: Tng hp i) Lp mt th c hng gi l th ph thuc hm: + Mi thuc tnh l mt nt + Mi mt nhm thuc tnh l v tri ca 1 ph thuc hm cng l nt + C 1 ph thuc hm A ( B th ta v cung A n B. ii) Loi b cc cung khp kn ( loi cc ph thuc hm khng trc tip)  A B C iii) Dng cc hnh ch nht khoanh vng: Mi nt trong (c con) ly lm kho gp cng vi cc con ca n lp thnh mt quan h. V d: 1 SH - n ( SH - Ngun cung cp, Tn Nccp, /ch - Nccp, ngy - H 2 SH - Nccp ( Tn - Nccp, /ch - Nccp 3 M H ( M t - MH, n v tnh, n gi 4 SH - M MH ( SH - n, M MH, M t MH, n v tnh, n gi, S lng t.  Vy lp c 4 quan h MATHANG (M - MH, Mota MH, V tnh, n gi) NGCCAP( SH - NCC, Tn - NCC, C - NCC) DONHG ( SH - n, Ngy H, SH - NCC) DONG H ( SH - n, M MH, S lng t) Trong s thc th lin kt cho m hnh  * Bc 5: Lp li cc bc t 1 n 4 trn cc danh sch xut pht khc Nu cng mt kiu thc th, t cc danh sch xut pht khc nhau c cc quan h danh sch thuc tnh khc nhau. Gp li: khi gp li c th xut hin ph thuc hm bc cu, khi gp xong phi tip tc cho chun ho quan h va gp li. V d: n hng (SH - n, SH - Khch hng, Ngy H) T phiu giao hng n hng (SH - n, Tnh trng n, /c giao hng) Gp li, nghin cu cc ph thuc hm ny sinh bn trong Gi s mi khch hng ch c 1 a ch giao hng duy nht, khi y c SH - Khch hng ( /c Giao hng Chun ho c n hng (SH - n, SH - Khch hng, ngy H, tnh trng n ) Khch hng (SH - Khch hng, /c giao hng) * Kt lun: Phn tch thit k h thng chc nng: + BPC chc nng (tnh) + BLD lung d liu (ng) Phn tch h thng d liu: BCD: + M hnh thc th lin kt + M hnh quan h - Phn r - Tng hp Sau so snh cc phng php xem c sai st g khng? Ch gi li nhng lin kt 1 - nhiu cn lm cc ng truy nhp v cc lin kt nhiu - nhiu c tch ra, cc lin kt 1 - 1 t s dng. 4. Bi tp bi 6 Lm li cc v d mc 2 v 3. Bi tp chng 6 6.1 So snh Phng php xy dng lc cu trc d liu bng m hnh thc th lin kt v m hnh quan h. 6.2. Lin kt 1 - 1 xut hin trong cc trng hp no? Cho v d. 6.3. Lin kt nhiu - nhiu (N-N) c x l nh th no trong m hnh thc th lin kt E -R. 6.4. . Lin kt 1 - nhiu (1-N) thng gp trong cc trng hp no? Cho v d. 6.5. Hy thc hnh xy dng cc m hnh thc th lin kt E - R trong cc h thng cho bi tp chng 4 (4.3). 6.6. Thuc tnh kho, thuc tnh kt ni ca mi thc th c xc nh nh th no? Chng 7: Thit k h thng thng tin qun l 1. Thit k tng th v thit k giao din M u : Ta xem li 4 bc ca thit k c cu trc  1.1. i cng v giai on thit k Xut pht: m t logic ca h thng mi - BPC (phn cp chc nng - m t tnh) - BLD ( m t ng t trong mi lin quan v d liu i vi nhau) phn mc. - BCD cu trc d liu: Thng tin / lin kt Quan h gia cc thc th v cc thuc tnh. Nhim v giai on ny l Chuyn biu mc logic ( mc vt l. - Bin php - Phng tin - Cch ci t Cc bc: + Thit k tng th: - Phn nh ranh gii phn thc hin bi My tnh v th cng. - Phn nh cc h thng con MT (khu vc trong biu lung d liu c x l bng my tnh) + Thit k giao din: (thit k u ra v u vo) thng thit k u ra trc ri thit k u vo. + Thit k cc kim sot: - Cc vn v bo mt - Vn v bo v + Thit k cc tp (khi thit k logic BCD ch quan tm: ? khng trng lp?) - Tin - Nhanh khi truy nhp ( T m hnh l tng ( ci t thc t) + Thit k v chng trnh C nhiu phng thc s dng MT: - Tp trung hay phn tn - Cc hnh thc x l theo m hay theo kiu trc tuyn? - Phn nh MT/th cng - Phn nh h thng con MT 1.2. Phn nh h thng MT v h thng thng tin BLD mt mc no , kt qu vn BLD c thm ranh gii gia MT v th cng, trn hnh v phn nh bng cc ng nt t on , c th cc vng khng lin thng. V d: Trong biu ta nhn thy dng iu sau:  Hoc a, i vi cc chc nng x l + D v hn mt bn cc chc nng thc hin bng my tnh, iu kh d. + Nu trong trng hp cc chc nng khng hn v 1 bn ta tip tc phn r nh i sao cho sau khi phn r c tip s phn bit r rng gia MT v th cng. V d: Trong h thng cung ng vt t, giao din gia ngi cung ng vt t v khch hng c nhng vic thc hin t ng ho bng my tnh. Tuy nhin c nhng vic thc hin thun tu bng th cng m khng th thay th bng my tnh c. Chc nng i chiu cng tng t nh vy. Bi vy cc chc nng c phn r tch thnh cc chc nng chi tit hn c th tch ri cc phn MT/TC. Mt s ch : 1. Vic phn nh cc chc nng MT/TC i khi dn n s nhm ln gia h thng thng tin v h tc nghip. Thc cht ta ang xt MT/TC ngay trong h thng thng tin. 2. Trong mt chc nng i khi c nhng phn va my tnh va th cng, ci kh l lm sao ta c th tch chng ra c m vn gi nguyn c hnh dng biu ca h thng. 3. Vic tch phn MT/TC nhm gi cho ngi thit k ch n thit k giao din ngi dng ti bin gii MT/TC. 4. i vi cc h thng dng phng thc trc tuyn th phn lm bng my tnh s l ch yu, phn thc hin th cng ch mang tnh theo di kim tra.  b, i vi cc kho d liu Nu kho d liu khi chuyn sang thc hin bng mytnh, n bin thnh cc kiu thc th lin kt v sau khi ci t n l cc file d liu, cc c s d liu cn phi so snh li vi biu cu trc c phi c mt trong BCD. Kho d liu nu thc hin bng th cng: chng hn h s ti liu, th cn loi ra khi BCD. i khi ta phi thm 1 thc th hay 1 lin kt vo BCD thun tin cho vic ci t (chng hn bng gi, catolo cung cp, s hiu n hng,) c, Chn la phng thc v s dng my tnh Cc phng thc th hin i vi h thng c th l h thng m, h thng trc tuyn. V d: Kim tra kho hng tun, hng ngy v bt c l do no. 1.3 Phn nh cc h thng con MT H thng con thc cht l 1 b ring l chng trnh.  Nguyn tc phn nh khng nht thit ch cn c vo chc nng thun tu Cc cn c phn nh (1) Theo thc th: gom tm nhng chc nng xung quanh 1 kiu thc th hay (tp) thnh 1 nhm kiu thc th ( tp hp tp). V d: H thng con khch hng H thng con kho vt t (2) Theo giao dch: l thng tin v kinh doanh khi xut hin s khi ng 1 lot chc nng cp nht thng tin. V d: n hng l 1 trong nhng giao dch Gom nhng chc nng c khi ng bi giao dch vo 1 nhm, da vo phng php lan truyn i vi cc lung d liu xut pht t thng tin vo khi ng bng s giao giao dch. (3) Theo thng tin bin i: Nu nhn thy trong BLD c 1 khu vc tp trung xt l thng tin ch yu th gom nhng chc nng ny li "nhc ln" ko theo nhng g lin quan. V d: Tnh lng Khi cn tnh lng s ko theo nhng u vo: cp bc, thm lin, ng thi u ra s c bng lng chi tit, bng tng hp lng (4) Gp theo tnh thit thc: chng hn + Cu trc kinh doanh ca c quan + V tr c s + S tn ti ca phn cng + Trnh i ng ca cn b nhn vin tha hnh. + Trch nhim cng tc ( thng l quyn u tin xm nhp vo d liu). 1.4. Thit k chi tit v cc th tc ngi dng v cc giao dinb a, Chc nng th cng: c nhiu loi - Khng lin quan n my tnh - C my tnh tr gip: + batch + on - line - C nhng chc nng th cng mi xut hin phc v MT: "n theo" s xut hin MT + M ho thng tin thu nhp + Kim sot v sa cha thng tin + Nhp thng tin + Kim tra ti liu xut + Phn phi ti liu xut Yu cu: chc nng th cng + p ng i hi h thng + Thng tin chnh xc + D dng, d hiu + G t phm nht ngn gn - Ni dung phi lm (thi gian, khng gian) - Yu cu nng sut - Cch x l cc sai st gp phi b, Thit k cc ti liu xut Xut d liu theo cc phng tin: - Giy - Mn hnh - a . Phng thc xut: - Lp tc - Tr hon Ti liu xut ra gm: - Ti liu c cu trc (thng thng l tha) - Thng tin tu tin (theo kiu may - o) tr li nhu cu, loi ti liu ph cp nhng loi ny khng nh dng. Trong trng hp ny yu cu ngi dng phi hiu c ngn ng th h 4 trong vic hi p.(Nu khng phi dng mt trung tm "phin dch" lm trung gian cho ngi dng v h thng. Yu cu i vi ti liu xut phi , chnh xc (kim tra khng nhp nhng), d hiu, d c. C hai hnh thc in ra: Khung in sn / khng c khung in sn. Trnh by: + u + Thn ( bao gm nhng ni dung c bn, gom nhm c mi lin h logic vi nhau) + Cui. c, Thit k mn hnh v n chn Mc ch s dng mn hnh l i thoi, c im ca i thoi l: + Vo / ra gn nhau + Thng tin thng ti thiu (cn u ly y, khng a sn) Yu cu thit k: + Sng sa ( d c, d nhn) + Lnh phi rnh mch (mun g? lm g?). Hnh thc i thoi trn mn hnh: Thit k mn hnh lin quan n hnh thc, nh dng, thit lp, trnh by cc thng tin trn mn hnh. Bc u tin ca thit k l phn tch i thoi gia ngi dng v my tnh. Vic phn tch ny i hi cn xc nh nhm logic ca i thoi lin quan n cc hnh vi n gin chng hn nh cc yu cu ngi dng hoc hin th chi tit v d liu. Cc dng hi thoi thng c cp: + Cu lnh, cn nhc + n chn (menu): Ngy nay ngi ta dung dn chn phn cp, nn ch li thot ca mi cp. Kt hp vi n chn l cc hp chiu sng tng tnh hp dn. + in mu + S dng cc biu tng (icon) tng tnh trc quan. d, Thit k ci vo (1), Chn phng thc thu nhp thng tin: + Online + Tr hon (a qua thi gian, cp nht sau) + T xa (2), Xc nh khun mu thu nhp thng tin. Mu c hai kiu: + Khung ( din) + Cu hi (cu hi ng: tr li xc nh trc; cu hi m: gi ). Yu cu mu: + Thun tin cho ngi iu tra + Thun tin m ho + Thun tin ngi g phm + Ni dung n gin, r rng, chnh xc. Tm li: Thit k giao din l mt trong nhng phn thit yu ca h thng h thng trnh by mt phn cc thng tin m ngi s dng cn bit. Bi vy mc tiu ca ns cn c ngi thit k tin hnh mt cch ht sc cn then. Cc yu cu chnh cn c xem xt: - Loi thit b phng tin giao din c s dng - Thit k ni dung ngi dng - h thng - Bn cht ca d liu v phng cch m ho d liu - Cc yu cu v k thut nh gi d liu - Thit lp nh dng mn hnh v cc bo co. 2. Thit k cc kim sot 2.1. Gii thiu mt s giai on trong qu trnh pht trin ca h thng bao gi cng cn tin hnh cc kim tra cn thit m bo vic thc hin ng n cho h thng d nh. Vic kim sot h thng nhm trnh mt s nguy c: + Sai li do phi tin hnh kim tra cc thng tin thu nhp. + S c k thut do vy phi tin hnh bo v (an ton) + xu do phi tin hnh bo mt + Ri do v mi trng: chy, bo lt Ba kha cnh c bn ca h thng cn c bo v bng cch kim sot l: - chnh xc: phi kim tra xem cc thao tc ang c tin hnh c c thc hin chnh xc hay khng v cc thng tinc gi trong c s d liu ca cng ty c ng n khng. - an ton: c mt yu cu bao trim v vic gi gn ti sn ca cng ty, m bo rng khng xy ra mt mt d c hay v tnh, d do chnh mng hay ri do. - ring t: cng c nhu cu kim tra xem cc quyn ca c nhn v cng ty khc c bo v khng. C l kha cnh quan trng nhtca vn ny l m bo rng h thng d kin s tun th nhng hn ch do Lut bo v d liu p t. 2.2 Nghin cu vic kim tra cc thng tin thu nhp hay xut ra - Mc ch: m bo tnh xc thc ca thng tin. - Yu cu: Mi thng tin xut ra hay nhp vo u phi qua kim tra. - Ni kim tra: + Ni thu nhp + Trung tm my tnh / ni phn pht. - Ni dung kim tra: pht hin li v sa cha - Hnh thc kim tra: + Tay (th cng): y / khng y + My (t ng): trc tip / gin tip, tham kho cac thng tin khc. - Th t kim tra: kim tra trc tip trc, gin tip sau. + Trc tip: . S c mt . Khun dng . Kiu . Min gi tr + Gin tip: kim tra mt thng tin khi m cc thng tin dng cho vic kim tra c kim tra. + Kim tra t ng: kim tra s rng buc ton vn REVOKE on < i tng> from V d: Gip: Revoke Read, insert on hoa don from t  Cc trng hp khc mc: + N ngun cho 1 quyn + U quyn vng quanh: Gip ( t (inh ( bnh ( Cn thm thng tin: Gn cho mi quyn mt "con du" (thc cht gi tr ghi nhn thi im) * Quy tc rt quyn: Nu A b rt quyn m A u quyn cho B th B cng b rt quyn nu B khng b ni khc u quyn vo thi im trc khi A nhn c quyn V d: a, t rt quyn inh thi im 20      b, Loi: Gip - t t - Bnh  Bnh - t t - inh 2.3. Nghin cu kh nng gin on chng trnh v s phc hi a, Cc gin on chng trnh * Nguyn nhn: + Hng phn cng + Gi mang tp c s c + Mi trng + H iu hnh + Nhm ln thao tc + lp trnh sai * Hu qu: + Mt th gi + Mt thng tin b, Ci t cc th tc phc hi - Chng trnh theo m (mt thi gian) - Chng trnh trc tuyn (online ): phc hi Nguyn tc phc hi sao lc: Khi chy chng trnh, bnh thng nh k ghi li 1 s bin mc quan trng. Khi gin on: Khi ng li chng trnh vi gi tr bin mc gn nht. 3. Thit k chng trnh 3.1. i cng Thit k chi tit: - Giao din - Kim sot - Tp (CSDL) - Chng trnh Trong kt qu phn tch thit k n nay ta c - BLD lin quan tha k d liu cn chng trnh l lin quan iu khin. - CSDL - Giao din - Kim sot Cc kt qu trn r thit k chng trnh v BLD l thit k v chc nng logic. Ngoi ra cc chc nng khc nh: + Chc nng i thoi + Chc nng x l li + Chc nng x l vo / ra + Chc nng tra cu CSDL + Chc nng Modun iu hnh Ch rng trong phn ny ta quan tm thit k ni dung chng trnh (khng phi vit chng trnh). Ngi lp trnh khi c bn thit k trong tay khng nht thit phi hiu c h thng. Ni dung ch yu trong giai on ny l: Xc nh cu trc tng qut  - Phn nh cc Modun chng trnh - Xc nh mi lin quan gia cc Modun (thng qua li gi v cc thng tin trao i)  - c t cc Modun chng trnh - Gp cc Modun thnh chng trnh (Modun ti) - Thit k cc mu th (Test chng trnh, ch y cng l vic ca ngi thit k) 3.2. Modun chng trnh a, nh ngha: - Mt chng trnh con: dng th tc, hm,.. - Mt cm lnh trong chng trnh hoc nhng ngn ng dng c : lp, i tng,.. b, Cc thuc tnh ca Modun chng trnh Mt Modun chng trnh gm 4 thuc tnh c bn  - Vo: thng tin t chng trnh gi n; Ra: thng tin tr li cho chng trnh gi n. - Chc nng lm bin i thng tin t vo ( ra.  - C ch: Phng thc c th thc hin chc nng trn - D liu cc b: ch no nh, d liu dng ring cho n * c trng ngoi: Cc Modun gi n ch cn bit c trng ny. * c trng trong: th hi s ci t ca Modun. Vic tch c trng ngoi v c trng trong to c lp cho s ci t Modun i vi nhng modun ngoi n. c, Thit k cu trc Thit k c cu trc l phng php tin hnh phn nh cc modun theo kiu trn xung. Phn nh lp trnh c cu trc, tuy nhin c khc bit. * Trong lp trnh c cu trc: - Hng ti cc phng tin ca ngn ng lp trnh (mn dn) - Mc trn vit chng trnh bng ngn ng lp trnh c sen thm ngn ng pseudo code thay cho li gi sau ny. Nh vy ti 1 bc no mi modun c c t. - Lp trnh c cu trc mn dn nhng khng c ch r phng php mn dn nh th no, khng c hng dn t mc ny xung mc kia. * Thit k c cu trc: - Phn nh modun v logic - Ch m t nhng ci vo/ra, chuyn giao d liu, ch ni dung cha c cp. - C hng dn cc phn nh v ngha ca modun. 3.3. Cng c din t cu trc chng trnh (lc cu trc - LCT) Lc cu trc: LCT l cng c y ht sc th s, th s mt cch c tnh tru tng ho nhm i ti cc chng trnh c th v chi tit hn. a, Biu din cc Modun Modun c biu din bng hnh ch nht trn c ghi tn modun   Trng hp c bit Modun c sn ta biu din thm hai ng gch sc b, Kt ni cc Modun: th hin bng li gi A gi B, B thc hin chc nng ca mnh ri quay v A v tr sau li gi  c, Thng tin chuyn giao gia cc Modun Cc modun chuyn giao bng d liu v iu khin D liu chuyn giao k hiu mi tn v u trn rng.  Nhng thng tin iu khin (khng l i tng x l m dng trong qu trnh iu khin thc hin chng trnh). K hiu mi tn v u trn c.   d, Mt s trng hp c bit * Chn la gi B hay C  * Lp A gi B nhiu ln * Ch : Nhn xt nhng Modun pha trn l modun iu khin cng i xung tnh cht iu khin gim dn, thc s x l, bin i thng tin. Nu trin khai thm xung di s xut hin nhng modun ch ch bin thng tin v c gi t nhiu modun khc. Trn "Xo ra" Di "chm vo" 3.4. Cht lng ca lc cu trc LCT Mt trong nhng nguyn tc c bn ca vic thit k c cu trc l t mt h thng ln ta phn thnh tng modun c th qun l c. Tuy nhin, iu quan trng l vic chia nh nn thc hin theo mt cch m cc modun c th c lp vi nhau. Cc modun ny c th tng tc hoc kt ni vi nhau. * C s tng tc: mt trong nhng phm vi cht lng thit k l s tng tc, tc l ph thuc gia hai modun vi nhau. i tng cn bn y l s tng tc ti thiu, tc l to mt modun c c lp c th c. tng tc thp gia cc modun ch ra s phn chia tt trong h thng v cc modun c th t c theo mt trong ba cch sau: - Lc b nhng mi quan h khng cn thit. - Gim bt cc quan h cn thit - B i cc mi quan h lng lo cn thit Mt trong nhng im ch yu ca s tng tc thp l khng c mt modun no lo lng v bt k nhng chi tit cu to bn trong n. Cc modun ny c cc chc nng v s xut hin cc chc nng bn trong n nh l mt hp en. Tm li, s tng tc thp nhm tho mn: - S kt ni gia hai modun cng t cng tt, s thay i trong modun ny khng lm nh hng n modun kia. - Khi ta mun thay i trong mt modun th ri ro rt thp cn thay i modun khc. - Khi qun l mt modun, ta khng lo lng v nhng chi tit bn trong ca cc modun khc, tc l ta mun h thng n gin v d hiu. 3.4.1. Cc nguyn tc ca s tng tc Thc ra lm gim s tng tc gia cc modun tc l lm gim i s kt ni phc tp gia hai modun. Cc nguyn tc lm gim s tng tc gm: - To cc s kt ni hp - To cc s kt ni trc tip - To cc s kt ni cc b (ton cc) - To cc s kt ni r rng - To cc s kt ni mm do a, Cc s kt ni hp rng v s giao tip gia hai modun l c nhiu kt ni cn thit lin kt gia hai modun . Mt s tng tc hp gia hai modun (l tt) l mt cp modun ch c mt mu d liu kt ni vi nhau duy nht, v ngc li nu c nhiu mu d liu kt ni gia hai modun l khng tt. b, Cc kt ni trc tip Giao tip gia hai modun l d nhn bit nhau nu mt ngi no lnh hi c n mt cch trc tip m khng cn tam kho ti nhiu mu d liu khc nhau khi tip xc ln u. Chng hn, mt modun ni v chi tit ca mt khch hng no m c nh ngha gm cc cc mu tin nh: tn khch hng, s ti khon kch hng, a ch khch hng, bn thanh ton ca khch hng. Th lc ta d nhn bit chng giao tip vi th gii bn ngoi bng mu d liu no, c l qua ng trong mu tin a ch khch hng. c, Cc s giao tip (cc b) Nu tt c cc thng tin giao tip yu cu hiu bit v kt ni gia hai modul l chnh n, th cc thng tin c gi l cc b. Thng tin v kt ni ton cc l xuyn qua ton mu d liu. Trong trng hp ny, thng tin v s kt ni gi hai modun c l l hng trm cch mc ni khc nhau t modun ang gi hoc l modun gi. d, Cc s kt ni r rng S kt ni r rng gia hai modun l khng c lp li, khng c tnh ti ngha. V d c mt on trnh hp ng modun A giao tip vi modun B bng cch thay i ni dung trong on trnh B, iu ny l s kt ni khng r rng. e, S kt ni mm do Bo tr mt h thng my tnh thng bao gm nhiu thay i cc lin kt trong s cc modun trong h thng. 3.4.2. Tng tc bnh thng  Hai modun A v B gi l tng tc bnh thng nu nh A gi c B v ngc li B gi c A, tt c cc thng tin truy cp gia chng l cc tham s c gi chnh chng. Tt nhin, y l m t trng hp bnh thng trong s c cu trc. Hnh v sau m t trng hp trn. Trong hnh 4.2) A gi ti B nhng A khng truy cp bt c iu g ti B v cng khng nhn c bt c iu g t B. Trng hp ny nh du 1 im zero trong t l tng tc. A gi l tng tc ca B khi v ch khi A l tn ca B ( nh th khi thay i tn th A cng s thay i theo). a, Tng tc d liu Trong hnh 4.3) biu din rng hn trong s cc kiu tng tc thng thng, tng tc bnh thng cng c ngha l tng tc d liu. Hai modun gi l tng tc d liu nu chng giao tip vi nhau bng cc tham s, mi tham s l mt phn thn trong mu d liu. D liu tng tc l s giao tip cn thit gia nhiu modun. Khi nhiu modun phi giao tip vi nhau th d liu tng tc l khng th trnh khi v d liu tng tc ny khng lm nh hng n cc modun min l n c ti thiu ho. V d trong hnh 4.4 c tt c 4 mu d liu gm c: tng s mn, li sut, thi hn, li sut hon tr l cn thit. Mt khc, cc thng tin ph tri khc khng cn nh thm vo tn khch hng lm tng thm phc tp, khng dng tnh ton tin tr n. Tng tc d liu th hin tt c cc c tnh tt nht ca s tng tc. Nu nh ta giao tip gia cc modun vi nhau bng nhng thng tin khng cn thit th s tng tc tr nn b thu hp li. Tng tc d liu cng c ngha l khi giao tip gia hai modun mun g c ly, hay l cc on m tng tc d liu c th hin dc theo cc modun gi l cc modun chun b cc modun khc. C hai iu cn ch trong tng tac d liu: + Vi s tng tc d liu cng nh l cng tt + Vi s tng tc d liu trong trng hp c nhiu modun tng tc vi nhau th nhng thng tin d tha (khng r rng) s lm cho s tng tc km hiu qu v vi phm n nm nguyn l ca s tng tc trn.   b, Tng tc stamp Thng thng hai modun c gi l tng tc stamp nu nh modun ny tng tc ti modun khc nh vo d liu kt ni chung, d liu kt ni ny c y tnh cu trc bn trong n. V d: d liu kt ni c th l mt bn ghi khch hng gm c nhiu trng, hnh 4.6 th hin s tng tc stamp. Trong hnh 4.6 c 3 tham s: bn c, nc i, vn c mi tt c c y tnh cu trc, v vy m chng th hin s tng tacstamp. S tng tc ny xy ra khi cc d liu cu trc la chn c tnh cht t nhin ti cc ng dng v khng c tnh mp m. Ta hy xem k trong hnh 4.6, s nh ngha nc i ca bn c. Khi c s tng tc quanh co th nn dng s tng tc d liu hn l dng s tng tc stamp. Mc d, khi ngi thit k gii cm thy dng s tng tc stamp l tt nhng ngi thit k km hn th cho rng tng tc stamp l khng tt cho cng mt h thng, cho nn c hai khuyn ngh c nu ra y cho tng tc stamp: + ng bao gi truy cp ti cc bn ghi c qu nhiu trng, ti cc modun m ch mt hoc hai trng trong s cc trng . + Nu nh ta mun gi d liu thnh b th dng s tng tc rt c hiu qu. c, Tng tc iu khin Hai modun c gi l tng tc iu khin, nu nh modun ny truy cp ti modun kia thng mt mnh thng tin kt ni v mnh thng tin kt ni li tham gia vo s iu khin logic ca mt modun khc na. 3.4.3. Tng tc chung Hai modun c gi l tng tc chung nu chng u tham tr n vng d liu ton cc ging nhau. * Nguyn tc vic la chn s tng tc: Chn s tng tc cng lng lo cng tt. Chn s tng tc cng n gin cng tt Do sau ny h thng s phi sa cha "Rt giy ng rng" (xu nht) - Tng tc ni dung: Modun ny can thip vo ni dung ca modun khc. - Tng tc iu khin: modun ny chuyn 1 thng tin iu khin cho 1 modun khc (c, ) ( khi gi 1 thng tin iu khin thc cht modun cp trn bit ni dung modun cp di nh vy vi phm nguyn tc "che du". Cn th vn phi dng tng tc ny song trnh nu c (hn ch). - Tng tc d liu: trao i d liu cho nhau (cn chp nhn tng tc ny, tuy nhin chn tng tc ny cng n gin cng tt; chuyn giao qua cc phn tch chun; danh sch tham s). * S c kt: s gn b v mt logic cc phn trong ni b ca modun cng cao cng tt (mi modun ch nn giao 1 nhim v logic, ng giao nhng nhim v phn tn). * Hnh thi: - Trn "xo ra"( th hin s tinh t - Di "chm vo" ( th hin ? mi im xo ra ch nn 7(2 C hai khi nim: + Phm vi iu kin ca 1 modun: modun cng vi nhng modun ph thuc (c gi) + Phm vi nh hng ca 1 quyt nh: l mi modun ( chu nh hng) c s dng cc kt qu quyt nh . V d: Chng hn trong B c 1 quyt nh q1 m kt qu ca n AEF th phm vi nh hng AEF. Phm vi iu khin ca A l A, B, C. - Mt thit k tt th: . Phm vi nh hng nm trong phm vi iu khin . Cc quyt nh c min nh hng cng b cng tt. 3.5 Cch thc chuyn BLD thnh LCT Thc cht chuyn BLD ca h thng con thnh BLD cng on mc b nht. C 2 phng thc nh hng cho vic chuyn BLD thnh LCT: - Phng thc theo bin i - Phng thc theo thao tc Hai phng thc ny khng i lp v c th kt hp vi nhau. y chng ta ch a ra nhng gi , nh hng cho nh phn tch thit k. a, Phng thc theo bin i Da theo s pht hin trung tm bin i thng tin ch (tnh ton, kt xut). Trung tm nh vy c tnh cht: - Cc phn cn li: s b ct ri khng cn lin kt c vi nhau sau khi ct i trung tm bin i nu "xch" trung tm bin i ln s ko theo phn cn li. Thng lu: lung thng tin vo H lu: lung thng tin ra. C 5 bc thc hin: (1) Di theo lung d liu v (thng lu) vt qua cc chc nng bin i thng tin s b cho n khi d liu c bin i tru tng nht hoc n lc khng xem n l d liu vo c na th chng ta ngt (nh du) lung vo t v tr . (2) Xc nh ngun d liu ra, i ngc dng vt qua cc chc nng ch bin dng thng tin cho n khi khng xem c l d liu ra th dng li v nh du. (3) Cn c vo cc im nh du khoanh vng c lp trung tm bin i. (4) V hai mc cao nht trong LCT Mc 1 l 1 modun chnh Mc 2 tip theo gm 3 modun 1 modun vo cho mi lung d liu vo (tri) 1 modun ra cho mi lung d liu ra (phi) v 1 modun thng tin bin i (gia) (5) Trin khai mi modun (vo, ra, bin i) mc trn thnh mc thp hn lm xut hin dn cc modun tng ng vi chc nng x l trong BLD. b, Phn tch theo thao tc (giao dch) l cc thng tin m khi xut hin th n khi ng 1 lot cc chc nng trong BLD. Mt thao tc bao gm: - Cc s kin trong mi trng h thng - Tc nhn kch thch - Cc hnh ng - Cc phn ng, p ng ca h thng.  V d: n hng n khi ng mt lot cc chc nng; c im l lun c mt chc nng phn loi thng tin giao dch. Cc bc thc hin: (1) Pht hin 1 chc nng x l trong BLD: nhn 1 lung d liu vo v cho ra nhiu d liu loi tr ln nhau. (2) Xc nh cc lo giao tc khc nhau tng ng vi cc lung ra ca chc nng ni trn v cc chc nng c khi ng t cc giao tc . (3) V LCT mc cao nht Mc 1: 1 modun chnh Mc 2: 1 modun cho mi loi giao tc v cc modun giao tc ny c modun chnh gi qua php chn. Cng c th thm cc modun ly cc thng tin vo / ra. V d:  (4) Trin khai cc modun xung mc thp Cc mc thp hn c th phi hp theo c hai phng php + Phn tch theo bin i chnh + Phn tch theo cc giao tc (ph tr) * c t cc modun: c t cc modun nhm cp n ni dung chi tit ca tng modun bng mt ngn ng gii thut no chng hn - S khi - Ngn ng gi trnh Da trn c t ny ngi xy dng chng trnh s m ho thnh cc chng trnh ng dng mt cch d dng. Phng php v k thut c t modun c cp n trong cc mn hc trc: Tin i cng, Cu trc d liu v gii thut, K thut lp trnh, c, Lp cc mu th Ngi thit k h thng sau khi thit k cc modun cn c trch nhim thit k v a ra cc mu th nhm m bo tnh khch quan. Cc mu th ny chnh l cc yu cu ngi lp trnh phi m bo thc hin ng cc chc nng v yu cu khi qut ca h thng cng nh cc yu cu chi tit ca tng modun chng trnh. Test: - Tng chng trnh - Ton b h thng  Hin nay, ngi ta "Test" gn nh l bin php duy nht kim tra chng trnh. V l thuyt chng ta bit l c cc phng php chng minh s ng n, phc tp, thi gian thc hin v khng gian lu tr, cng nh tnh hiu qu ca chng trnh nhng cc cng c ny hin nay cha kh thi v ng dng. Nh Diskjstra pht biu: " Mu th ch chng minh s c mt ca li ch khng chng minh c s vng mt ca li". * Cc loi mu th: - 1% loi mu th hon chnh / khng hon chnh. Mu th hon chnh m bo d kin mi trng hp c mt trong chng trnh. Mu th khng hon chnh khi ta ch cnd kim tra cc im mc quan trng, cn cc phn th yu khng quan trng c th cho php b qua khng nh hng sai lch n tnh cht ca h thng cng nh tng modun ring l. - 2 % Loi mu th ngu nhin / khng ngu nhin: trc tin ta nn th khng ngu nhin, sau tin hnh nhng mu th ngu nhin. C nhiu cch sinh mu ngu nhin: thng sinh theo lut xc sut Baux hoc phng php Von Newman. - 3% mu th a dng, phong ph v ln * Trnh by mu th: mu th c th c trnh by theo bng c dng sau: Mu th (1)Kt qu thu c (2)Kt qu mong i ( d on) (3)Sai lch thc t gia (2) v (3)Nhn xtd1dnk1kmk1kn%% - Mu th c th sinh bng cc "b sinh" t ng hoc bng cch ch ra cng thc sinh. * Cc cch th chng trnh bng mu sinh: - Th tnh ng n - So kt qu thu c vi kt qu ch i - Nu trong qu trnh phc tp, yu cu chng trnh in cc tr trung gian - Kim tra cc gi tr trung gian - Kim tra vit chng trnh. - Th hiu nng: cc mu th, ln, phi cho 1 thi gian thc hin. 4. bi tp 7 Bi tp chng 7 7.1 Hy thit k giao din cho chng trnh cp nht d liu khi c c gi yu cu mn sch trong h thng th vin. 7.2. i vi h thng tuyn sinh vo cc trng i hc hy phn nh h thng my tnh v th cng cho hp l v logic. Chng 8: Lp trnh - Chy th - Bo tr 1. Lp trnh. - Thnh lp t lp trnh - Chn ngn ng lp trnh - Ci t cc tp, vit cc on chng trnh chung. - Son tho chng trnh cho tng n v x l. 2. Chy th v ghp ni Chy th v ghp ni cho ra mt mu th h thng 3. Bo tr h thng Song song vi quy trnh kim tra th ta phi tin hnh bo tr h thng: + Sa cc li + iu chnh theo yu cu mi + Ci thin hiu nng ca h thng. Mun vy ta phi hiu c chng trnh t nhng ti liu li, phi ln c du vt khi pht hin li. * Bo tr gm 4 bc: - Mc 0: Gii hn trong chng trnh. - Mc 1: Bo tr mc vt l lin quan n phn cng. - Mc 2: Mc truy cp t chc * Cc loi bo tr: - Bo tr sa cha: 17% n 20% - Bo tr thch ng: 18% n 25% - Bo tr hon thin: ci tin h thng n chy tt hn, n nh nhanh hn, chim t 50% n 60%. Tm li chu trnh pht trin ca h thng truyn thng nh sau:  Bi tp chng 8 8.1 Trnh by cc bc chy th v test h thng. 8.2 C th p dng phng php lun PTTK h thng thng tin cho cc bi ton k thut c khng? C p dng cho cc d n x hi c khng? 8.3 Vng i ca sn phm phn mm tin c qun l l g? Giai on no quan trng nht?      ( Gio trnh Phn tch thit k h thng thng tin qun l (-  PAGE 80 - ( Khoa Cng ngh thng tin ( Bin son: Nguyn Th Minh Hng Phn t Black box (Hp en) HT quyt nh HT thng tin HT tc nghip - Nguyn vt liu - Tin - Thng tin - Thnh phm - Tin - Thng tin M t hot ng ca h thng hin ti lm vic nh th no (How to do) I M t hot ng h thng mi lm vic nh th no (How to do) IV M t h thng mi lm g (What to do) III M t h thng hin ti lm g (What to do) II Ngi s dng mun x l trc tip M hnh h thng mc vt l Ngi s dng v ngi phn tch M hnh h thng mc Logic Ngi s dng mong mun y l vn kh Ngi thit k mong mun H thng quyt nh H thng quyt nh H thng quyt nh Pht trin ng dng Qun tr d liu M hnh Phn tch thng k Lp k hoch Hi p Pht trin ng dng Hp nht ho Cng c phn cng DSS Trm lm vic, thit b ho, my in, Requirement 56% Design 27% Code 7% Other 10% Tn chc nng A Phn t B C D Phn t Phn t Phn t Quan h H thng Mi trng u vo u ra Sn phm cui cng Thanh ton Sn phm cui cng Sn phm cui cng Thanh ton Thanh ton Thanh ton Dch v Bn thnh phm Thanh ton chi ph Thanh ton Dch v ti chnh Nhin liu, dch v Nguyn vt liu, i l Khch hng Nh thu C quan hnh chnh X nghip Nh cung cp Ngn hng Xc nhn .ch cho Ha n Tm .ch pht hng Pht hng Nhn hng Lm n t hng Chn nh cung cp i chiu & KT Nhn hng t hng Cung ng vt t X l D liu T in d liu Lu tr Qun l X l thi li Tn lung d li Ho n kim tra Thng bo Phong bao thng bo Vn bn thng bo nh danh ngi nhn nh danh ngi gi Phong bao thng bo Tn kho d liu H s cn b a) b) c) Hnh 3.1: Quy tc s dng kho d liu: Ba cch truy nhp: a) c; b) Vit; c) c v vit Kim tra h s Lm giy bo thi H s th sinh H s th sinh a ch th sinh a) b) Blc Truyn cc Blc Ct thng bo thnh Blc Hnh 3.2: Quy tc s dng kho d liu a) Truy nhp ton b d liu: Lung d liu khng cn mang tn b) Truy nhp mt phn d liu: Lung d liu phi mang tn ch r thnh phn truy nhp Truyn cc Blc Ct thng bo thnh Blc Blc a) b) Hnh 3.3: Quy tc s dng kho d liu a) Khng c kho: Thng tin c x l ngay b) C kho: Thng tin c x l thi im khc vi thi im c sinh ra Thng bo Tnh chn l ca thng bo Tm dng ca thng bo Ct thng bo thnh Blc Hnh 3.4: Quy tc s dng kho d liu: Truy nhp nhiu ln cng mt thng tin Hnh 3.5: Quy tc s dng kho d liu: S dng cc thng tin vi mt trt t khi sn sinh Truyn thng bo Kim chng ngi nhn Tnh chn l ca thng bo Thng bo Tip nhn thng bo d. ngi gi + d. ngi nhn + Vn bn Vn bn + d. ngi gi d. ngi nhn + d. ngi gi Vn bn + d. ngi gi Tc nhn ngoi / i tc Khch hng Tn tc nhn trong Tn tc nhn trong Tnh lng Qun l kho hng Tn Tn Tn Tn Tn Lm n t hng n hng Nh cung cp Ho n xc nhn chi Thanh ton Sa Update c Read Thm Add Xo Delete View Cp nht kho (sa i bn ghi) c file, ly thng tin t kho Nhp thng tin vo kho (thm) Xo thng tin trong kho (xo bn ghi) Va ly thng tin va cp nht Kho d liu B 2.2 Chc nng A.2.2 2.1 Chc nng A.2.1 Tc nhn ngoi Tc nhn trong Kho d liu A 1.2 Chc nng A.1.2 1.1 Chc nng A.1.1 Tc nhn ngoi Kho d liu A 2 Chc nng A.2 Tc nhn ngoi 2 1 Chc nng A.1 Tc nhn ngoi 1 Tc nhn ngoi Chc nng A Tc nhn ngoi Danh sch hng nhn D tr Danh sch n hng Phiu pht hng Thng tin thng lng n t hng Ha n  xc nhn chi Cheque Ha n Phiu giao hng (+hng) Thanh tan Nh cung cp Phiu tr tin Phiu giao hng Giao hng Ho n n c p ng ngay Ho n Phiu xut n hng n khng hp l Nhn hng n hng Phn xng sn xut D tr / n hng Nhn hng i chiu t hng Nh cung cp Mc 2 (Mc di nh) Mc 1 (Mc nh) Mc 0 (Mc khung cnh) I H G F E D C B A Giy bo ch hng Khch hng Thanh ton Giao hng Lm ho n & phiu xut Kim tra n hng Khch hng Tc nhn ngoi Chc nng A Tc nhn ngoi D liu n D liu n Hon tr Tr li n vay Khch hng Lm ho n v phiu xut Gii quyt n Gii quyt v pht hng Khch hng Thu v thanh ton tin n khng hp l Giy bo ch i Lnh kho * * Ho n Ho n Phiu giao hng Tr tin * giao hng * * Biu din thng tin ng truyn lin h Thng tin tng qut Chuyn giao thng tin H s / Kt xut Truyn xa ti liu in ra Gi Trng t Bt u, kt thc, gin on a mm R nhnh Biu din x l K hiu tng qut Hp nht Tch R nhiu nhnh Chn Sp xp Nhp th cng X l th cng Chun b Chng trnh con a t Bng t Mn hnh Ti liu vo (BLD mc di nh 1 - gii thch chc nng 1 BLD mc nh) Biu lung d liu ca h thng cung ng vt t Cu trc mt biu phn cp chc nng (BLD mc di nh 1 - gii thch chc nng 2 BLD mc nh) ly thuc tnh Son tho nh dng x l d liu x l d liu a) b) d) c) Tn thuc tnh Thuc tnh ly Bad D liu Thng tin Go Rong bin M tt C ng Du la S n 2 Thu n 1 Cho vay Khch vay Hon tr Tr li n vay Hot ng tn dng Khch vay Ghi nhn tr sai hn Ghi nhn tr ng hn Xc nh loi hon tr Tr li n Nhn n Duyt vay Thu n Cho vay Hot ng tn dng n vay  duyt S n Cho vay T chi n vay  kim tra 1.2 Duyt vay 1.1 Nhn n 1.3 Tr li n Khch vay Tr sai hn Tr ng hn Hon tr 2.3 Ghi nhn tr sai hn 2.2 Ghi nhn tr ng hn S n 2.1 Xc nh loi hon tr Khch vay Tnh (TP) Lt S lin tip 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.2.2 1.2.1 1.1.1 1.2.1.1 1.2.1.2 1.2.1.3 1.3.1.1 Khch Ngnh hc Sch Pht ng D n S BD mn Mn, phch 1 - 1 1 - 1 1 - N 1 - N sinh vin Lp Ti khon Khch hng N - N N - N nh cung cp mt hng B A MH / NCC NGCC/MH nh cung cp mt hng B A A/B NGiccp mt hng n hng ng my My Cng nhn Phn xng S/X phn xng ng my Bc CN Ch s SH - PX Thng Tng s gi SH - PX Tn PX S lng PX Trng PX M CN Tn CN Bc CN SH - PX SH my SH Pxng Loi my M CN SH My Thi gian Thao tc tha hnh iu phi Lnh o Chuyn gia CN F1.1.1 Chc nng nhm F1.n Chc nng nhm F1.3 Chc nng nhm F1.2 Chc nng nhm F1.1 Chc nng F1 Chc nng tng qut Chc nng nhm Chc nng nhm Nhm k Nhm 3 Nhm 2 Nhm 1 Quan h mt chiu do con ngi tc ng. Knh lin lc gia hai my. 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